The university recommends textbooks for the courses, of course, but they aren't mandatory. We're given the freedom to choose our own textbooks pretty much as we please. I know that people here are much more knowledgeable about each of these areas, so I'm requesting help before making this rather large investment.

I've listed out the subject names with a short précis of each below. The detailed syllabus is given in the spoiler.

Database Management System (how to design and build a database)

Data Communication (different types of modulation, information and coding theory, digital communication)

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers (the Intel Pentium, its architecture, the 8051 & PIC)

Digital Signal Processing

Theory of Computation

**Spoiler:**

Database Management System

Unit I (06 Hrs)

Introduction to DBMS: Basic concepts, Advantages of a DBMS over file-processing

systems, Data abstraction, Database Languages, Data Models and Data Independence,

Components of a DBMS and overall structure of a DBMS, Multi-User DBMS

Architecture, System Catlogs

Data Modeling: Basic Concepts, entity, attributes, relationships, constraints, keys, E-R

and EER diagrams: Components of E-R Model, conventions, converting E-R diagram into

tables, EER Model components, converting EER diagram into tables

Relational Model: Basic concepts, Attributes and Domains, Codd's Rules, Relational

Integrity: Nulls, Entity, Referential Integrities, Enterprise Constraints, Views, Schema

diagram

Unit II (06 Hrs)

Relational Query Languages: Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus: Tuple

Relational and Domain Relational Calculus

Introduction to SQL: Characteristics and advantages, SQL Data Types and Literals,

DDL, DML, SQL Operators, Tables: Creating, Modifying, Deleting, Views: Creating,

Dropping, Updation using Views, Indexes, Nulls

SQL DML Queries: SELECT Query and clauses, Set Operations, Predicates and Joins,

Set membership, Tuple Variables, Set comparison, Ordering of Tuples, Aggregate

Functions, Nested Queries, Database Modification using SQL Insert, Update and Delete

Queries, concept of Stored Procedures and Triggers, Introduction to QBE and QUEL

Programmatic SQL: Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, ODBC

Unit III (06 Hrs)

Database Analysis and Design Techniques: Information Systems Lifecycle, Application

Lifecycle, Planning, System Definition, Requirement Analysis, Design, DBMS Selection,

Application Design: Transaction and User-Interface Design, Prototyping, Implementation,

Data Conversion and Loading, Testing, Data and Database Administration, Fact-Finding

Techniques

Relational Database Design: Purpose of Normalization, Data Redundancy and Update

Anomalies, Functional Dependencies, The Process of Normalization: INF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF,

4NF, 5NF and DKNF

Unit IV (06 Hrs)

Storage and File Systems: Secondary Storage, RAID, File Organization, Indices, Static and

Dynamic Hashing, B-trees and B+ Trees

Introduction to Query Processing: Overview, Measures of query cost, Selection and join

operations, Evaluation of Expressions, Introduction to Query Optimization, Estimation,

Transformation of Relational Expressions

Unit V (06 Hrs)

Transaction Management: Basic concept of a Transaction, Properties of Transactions, Database

Architecture, Concept of Schedule, Serial Schedule, Serializability: Conflict and View, Cascaded

Aborts, Recoverable and Non-recoverable Schedules, Concurrency Control: Need, Locking

Methods, Deadlocks, Timestamping Methods, Optimistic Techniques, Multi-Version

Concurrency Control, Different Crash Recovery methods such as Shadow-Paging and Log-Based

Recovery: Deferred and Immediate, Checkpoints

Unit VI ' (06 Hrs)

Object-Oriented Databases: Need of OODBMS, Storing Objects in Relational Database,

Introduction to OO Data Models, Persistent Programming Languages, Pointer Swizzling

Techniques, Persistence, Object Management Group, Object Database Standard ODMG

Database Architectures: Centralized and Client-Server Architectures, Introduction to

Distributed Database systems

Data Communication

Unit I (06 Hrs)

Introduction: Communication System, Modulation, Baseband and Carrier Communication,

Amplitude modulation: DSBFC, DSBSC, SSB, QAM, Carrier Acquisition, Superheterodyne

AM Receiver, Angle Modulation: Frequency modulation, phase modulation, Analysis of FM,

Bandwidth Requirements, Equivalence between FM and PM Digital Continuous Wave

Modulation: ASK, FSK and PSK and Modems

Unit 11 (06 Hrs)

Pulse Modulation: Sampling theorem, Natural and Flat Top Sampling, PAM, Pulse Time

Modulation, Pulse Transmission over Band Limited Channel, Effect of Gaussian Type Noise

on Digital Transmission, Crosstalk, Eye Diagram Line Codes: Bipolar, Unipolar, RZ, NRZ,

Manchester, AMI

Unit III (06 Hrs)

Pulse Code Modulation: Encoder and Decoder, PCM - TDM, Tl Carrier System,

Quantization Noise, Companding, DPCM, ADPCM, Delta modulation, Slope overload and

Adaptive Delta Modulation, Scrambling, Digital Carrier Systems, Digital Multiplexing

Unit IV (06 Hrs)

Information and Coding: Measure of information, entropy, information rate, Shannon's

theorems on channel capacity, Optimum Codes, Huffman Code, Code Efficiency, Error

Control Coding, Methods of Controlling Errors, Types of Errors, Types of Codes, Linear

Block Codes: Matrix Description of Linear Block Codes, Error detection and correction

capabilities, Hamming Distance, Hamming Bound, Hamming Codes, CRC Block Codes,

Syndrome Calculation, Error Detection and Correction, Handshaking Techniques, FEC, ARQ

- Stop and Wait, Go Back N, Selective Repeat, Channel Throughput and Efficiency

UnitV (06 Hrs)

Digital Communications Technologies: SF, ESF Framing, DS1/T1, B8ZS, DSU, CSU,

HDSL, Digital Hierarchy, Digital Services, ISDN, Frame Relay, SONET, ATM, BISDN,

SMDs, Video on Demand, ADSL

Cellular Telephone Systems: Spread Spectrum Systems, DS/SS, FH/SS, Cellular Telephony,

GPS, Transmission Media, PSTN

Unit VI (06 Hrs) Computer Network: Need and Applications of Network, Network

Architecture, Protocols and Standards, OSI Model, TCP/IP Model, Network topology

(Physical & logical), Types of Networks: Peer to Peer, Client-Server, LAN: Ethernet, Token

Ring, FDDI, MAN: DQDB, SMDS, WAN: Architecture, Transmission Mechanism,

Addressing, ISDN and Broadband ISDN

Transmission Media: Guided Media - Twisted Pair, Coaxial and Fiber-optic cables,

Unguided Media (Wireless): Radio and Micro Waves, Infrared

Switching Techniques: Circuit switching, Packet switching and message switching,

Telephone network, High-Speed Digital Access: DSL, Cable Modems and Sonets

Digital Signal Processing

Unit I (08 Hrs)

Classification of Signals: Analog, Discrete-time and Digital, Basic sequences and sequence

operations. Discrete-time systems, Properties of D. T. Systems and Classification, Linear Time

Invariant Systems, impulse response, linear convolution and its properties, properties of LTI

systems: stability, causality, parallel and cascade connection, Linear constant coefficient different

equations, Eigen functions for LTI systems and frequency response, Periodic Sampling, Sampling

Theorem, Frequency Domain representation of sampling, reconstruction of a band limited Signal,

A to D conversion Process: Sampling, quantization and encoding.

Unit 11 (08 Hrs)

Representation of Sequences by Fourier Transform, Symmetry properties of F. T., F. T. theorems:

Linearity, time shifting, frequency shifting, time reversal, differentiation, Parseval’s theorem,

convolution theorem, windowing theorem, Z-transform, ROC and its properties, Inverse z

transform by inspection, partial fraction, power series expansion and complex inversion, Z

transform properties: Linearity, time shifting, multiplication by exponential sequence,

differentiation, conjugation, time reversal, convolution, initial value theorem, Unilateral Ztransform:

solution of difference equation

Unit III (08 Hrs)

Frequency Response of LTI Systems: Ideal frequency selective filters, magnitude and phase

response, group delay, System Functions for LTI Systems: Stability and causality, inverse

systems, significance of poles/zeros, Frequency Response for Rational System Functions:

Frequency Response of a single zero or pole, Frequency response from pole-zero plot using

simple geometric construction, systems with Linear phase, Generalized Linear phase systems,

Four Types of GLPS

Unit IV (08 Hrs)

Sampling the F.T., Fourier representation of finite-duration sequences: The Discrete Fourier

Transform, Properties of DFT: Linearity, circular shift, duality, symmetry, Circular Convolution,

Linear Convolution using DFT, Effective computation of DFT and FFT, Goerzel Algorithm, DIT

FFT, DIP FFT, Inverse DFT using FFT, Practical considerations in FFT implementation

Unit V (08 Hrs)

Concept of filtering, Ideal filters and approximations, specifications, IIR filter design from

continuous time filters: Characteristics of Butterworth, Cheybyshev and elliptic

approximations, impulse invariant and bilinear transformation techniques, Design examples,

FIR filter design using windows: properties of commonly used windows, incorporation of

Generalized Linear Phase, Design Examples, Design using Kaiser window, Comparison of

IIR and FIR Filters

Unit VI (08 Hrs)

Block diagrams and Signal flow graph representation of LCCDE, Basic structures for IIR

Systems: direct form, cascade form, parallel form, feedback in IIR systems, Transposed Forms,

Basic Structures for FIR Systems: direct form, cascade form, structures for linear phase FIR

Systems, Finite Register Length effect

DSP Processors Architecture and Applications of DSP: Detail Study of DSP chip architecture as

an example of ADSP 21XX series of microprocessor and their desirable features, Instruction set

of ADSP 21XX series processor and some examples

Theory of Computation

Unit I (6 Mrs)

Automata Theory: Introduction to Finite Automata, Structural Representations, Automata

and Complexity, Central Concepts to Automata Theory: Alphabets, Strings, Languages and

Problems, Finite Automata: An Informal Picture of FA, Deterministic Finite Automaton

(DFA): How a DFA processes Strings, Simpler Notations for DFA, Extending the transition

function to strings, the language of DFA, Non-deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA): NFA,

Extended transition function, the language of an NFA, Equivalence of NFA and DFA, FA

with e-transitions: Use of e-transitions, NFA with e, e-closures, Extended transitions and

languages for e-N F A , E lim inating € -transitions-Con version of NFA with e to NFA without

e, Conversion of NFA without e to DFA, Conversion of NFA with 6 to DFA (direct method),

FA with output: Moore and Mealy machines -Definition, models, inter-conversion.

Unit II (6 Hrs)

Regular Expressions (RE) and Languages: Regular Expressions - Operators of RE,

Building RE, Precedence of operators, Algebraic laws for RE, Arden's Theorem, FA and RE:

DFA to RE, RE to DFA (RE to s-NFA & e-NFA to DFA and RE to DFA-direct method), FA

limitations, Properties of Regular Languages: pumping lemma for regular languages, closure

and decision properties of regular languages, Equivalence and minimization of automata,

Application of RE: Regular expressions in Unix, GREP utilities of Unix, Lexical analysis and

finding patterns in text.

Unit III (6 Hrs)

Context Free Grammars (CFG) and Languages: Context Free Grammar- Definition,

derivations, languages of a grammar, sentential form, Parse Tree- inference, derivation and

parse tree, from inference to tree, Ambiguity in grammars and languages: removal of

ambiguity, inherent ambiguity, Properties of CFL- Normal forms- Chomsky Normal Form

and Greibach Normal Form, Eliminating unit productions, useless production, useless

symbols, and e-productions, Regular Grammar - definition, left linear and right linear

Regular Grammar, Regular Grammar and Finite Automata, FA to RG and RG to FA, Interconversion

between left linear and right linear regular grammar.

Unit IV (6 Hrs)

Push Down Automata (PDA): Definition, The Language of PDA, Equivalence of PDA's

and CFG- CFG to PDA, PDA to CFG, Deterministic Push Down Automata (DPDA)-

Regular language and DPDA, DPDA and CFL, DPDA and ambiguous grammar, Nondeterministic

Push Down Automata (NPDA), The pumping lemma for CFL, Closure

properties of CFL, Decision properties of CFL, Chomsky Hierarchy, Application of CFG:

Parser, Markup languages, XML and Document Type Definitions.

Unit V (6 Hrs) Turing Machine: Problems that computers cannot solve, The Turing

Machine(TM)-Notation, the language of TM, TM and Halting, Programming techniques to TM,

Extensions to basic TM, TM and Computers. Introduction to Post Machines, Comparison

between FA, PDA, Post Machine and TM

Unit VI (6 Hrs)

Introduction to Computational Complexity: Un-decidability: A Language that is not

recursively enumerable, An un-decidable problem that is RE, Post Correspondence Problem,

Intractable Problems* The classes P and NP, Problems solvable in polynomial time, Nondeterministic

Polynomial time, Polynomial time reduction and NP-complete problems.

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

Unit I: Introduction to Pentium Microprocessors

Historical evolution of 80286, 386, and 486 processors, Pentium features and architecture, pin description, functional description, Pentium real mode, Pentium RISC features, Pentium super-scalar architecture pipelining, instruction paring rules, branch prediction, instruction and data caches, the floating-point unit

Unit II: Cycles and memory organisation

Initialisation and configuration, bus operations, reset, non-pipelined and pipelined read and write, memory organisation and I/O organisation, data transfer mechanism, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit data-but interface

Pentium programming: programmers' model, register set, addressing modes, instruction set, data types, data transfer instructions, string instructions, arithmetic instructions, logical instructions, bit manipulation instructions, program transfer instructions, processor control instructions

Unit III: Protected Mode

Introduction, segmentation/support registers, related instruction descriptions, memory management through segmentation, logical to linear address translation, protection by segmentation, privilege level protection, related instructions, inter-privilege level transfer of control, paging support registers, descriptors, linear to physical address translation, TLB, page level protection, virtual memory

Unit IV: Multitasking, Interrupts, Exceptions, and I/O

Multitasking - support registers, related descriptors, task switching, I/O permission bitmap

Virtual Mode - features, address generation, privilege level, instruction and registers available, entering and leaving V86 mode

Interrupt structure - real, protected, and virtual 8086 modes, I/O handling in the Pentium, comparison of all three modes

Unit V: 8051 microcontrollers

Micro-controller MCS-51 family architecture, on-chip data, memory and program memory organisation - register set, register bank, SFRs, external data memory and program memory, interrupt structure, timers and their programming, serial port and programming, other features, design of minimum system using 8051 microcontroller for various applications

Unit VI: PIC microcontroller

Overview and features of PIC 16-C, PIC 16F8XX, pin diagram, capture mode, compare mode, PWM mode, block diagram, programmers' model of PIC, reset and clocking.

Memory organisation - program memory, data memory, flash, EEPROM, PIC 16F8XX addressing modes, instruction set, programming, I/O ports, interrupts, timers, ADC

Unit I (06 Hrs)

Introduction to DBMS: Basic concepts, Advantages of a DBMS over file-processing

systems, Data abstraction, Database Languages, Data Models and Data Independence,

Components of a DBMS and overall structure of a DBMS, Multi-User DBMS

Architecture, System Catlogs

Data Modeling: Basic Concepts, entity, attributes, relationships, constraints, keys, E-R

and EER diagrams: Components of E-R Model, conventions, converting E-R diagram into

tables, EER Model components, converting EER diagram into tables

Relational Model: Basic concepts, Attributes and Domains, Codd's Rules, Relational

Integrity: Nulls, Entity, Referential Integrities, Enterprise Constraints, Views, Schema

diagram

Unit II (06 Hrs)

Relational Query Languages: Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus: Tuple

Relational and Domain Relational Calculus

Introduction to SQL: Characteristics and advantages, SQL Data Types and Literals,

DDL, DML, SQL Operators, Tables: Creating, Modifying, Deleting, Views: Creating,

Dropping, Updation using Views, Indexes, Nulls

SQL DML Queries: SELECT Query and clauses, Set Operations, Predicates and Joins,

Set membership, Tuple Variables, Set comparison, Ordering of Tuples, Aggregate

Functions, Nested Queries, Database Modification using SQL Insert, Update and Delete

Queries, concept of Stored Procedures and Triggers, Introduction to QBE and QUEL

Programmatic SQL: Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, ODBC

Unit III (06 Hrs)

Database Analysis and Design Techniques: Information Systems Lifecycle, Application

Lifecycle, Planning, System Definition, Requirement Analysis, Design, DBMS Selection,

Application Design: Transaction and User-Interface Design, Prototyping, Implementation,

Data Conversion and Loading, Testing, Data and Database Administration, Fact-Finding

Techniques

Relational Database Design: Purpose of Normalization, Data Redundancy and Update

Anomalies, Functional Dependencies, The Process of Normalization: INF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF,

4NF, 5NF and DKNF

Unit IV (06 Hrs)

Storage and File Systems: Secondary Storage, RAID, File Organization, Indices, Static and

Dynamic Hashing, B-trees and B+ Trees

Introduction to Query Processing: Overview, Measures of query cost, Selection and join

operations, Evaluation of Expressions, Introduction to Query Optimization, Estimation,

Transformation of Relational Expressions

Unit V (06 Hrs)

Transaction Management: Basic concept of a Transaction, Properties of Transactions, Database

Architecture, Concept of Schedule, Serial Schedule, Serializability: Conflict and View, Cascaded

Aborts, Recoverable and Non-recoverable Schedules, Concurrency Control: Need, Locking

Methods, Deadlocks, Timestamping Methods, Optimistic Techniques, Multi-Version

Concurrency Control, Different Crash Recovery methods such as Shadow-Paging and Log-Based

Recovery: Deferred and Immediate, Checkpoints

Unit VI ' (06 Hrs)

Object-Oriented Databases: Need of OODBMS, Storing Objects in Relational Database,

Introduction to OO Data Models, Persistent Programming Languages, Pointer Swizzling

Techniques, Persistence, Object Management Group, Object Database Standard ODMG

Database Architectures: Centralized and Client-Server Architectures, Introduction to

Distributed Database systems

Data Communication

Unit I (06 Hrs)

Introduction: Communication System, Modulation, Baseband and Carrier Communication,

Amplitude modulation: DSBFC, DSBSC, SSB, QAM, Carrier Acquisition, Superheterodyne

AM Receiver, Angle Modulation: Frequency modulation, phase modulation, Analysis of FM,

Bandwidth Requirements, Equivalence between FM and PM Digital Continuous Wave

Modulation: ASK, FSK and PSK and Modems

Unit 11 (06 Hrs)

Pulse Modulation: Sampling theorem, Natural and Flat Top Sampling, PAM, Pulse Time

Modulation, Pulse Transmission over Band Limited Channel, Effect of Gaussian Type Noise

on Digital Transmission, Crosstalk, Eye Diagram Line Codes: Bipolar, Unipolar, RZ, NRZ,

Manchester, AMI

Unit III (06 Hrs)

Pulse Code Modulation: Encoder and Decoder, PCM - TDM, Tl Carrier System,

Quantization Noise, Companding, DPCM, ADPCM, Delta modulation, Slope overload and

Adaptive Delta Modulation, Scrambling, Digital Carrier Systems, Digital Multiplexing

Unit IV (06 Hrs)

Information and Coding: Measure of information, entropy, information rate, Shannon's

theorems on channel capacity, Optimum Codes, Huffman Code, Code Efficiency, Error

Control Coding, Methods of Controlling Errors, Types of Errors, Types of Codes, Linear

Block Codes: Matrix Description of Linear Block Codes, Error detection and correction

capabilities, Hamming Distance, Hamming Bound, Hamming Codes, CRC Block Codes,

Syndrome Calculation, Error Detection and Correction, Handshaking Techniques, FEC, ARQ

- Stop and Wait, Go Back N, Selective Repeat, Channel Throughput and Efficiency

UnitV (06 Hrs)

Digital Communications Technologies: SF, ESF Framing, DS1/T1, B8ZS, DSU, CSU,

HDSL, Digital Hierarchy, Digital Services, ISDN, Frame Relay, SONET, ATM, BISDN,

SMDs, Video on Demand, ADSL

Cellular Telephone Systems: Spread Spectrum Systems, DS/SS, FH/SS, Cellular Telephony,

GPS, Transmission Media, PSTN

Unit VI (06 Hrs) Computer Network: Need and Applications of Network, Network

Architecture, Protocols and Standards, OSI Model, TCP/IP Model, Network topology

(Physical & logical), Types of Networks: Peer to Peer, Client-Server, LAN: Ethernet, Token

Ring, FDDI, MAN: DQDB, SMDS, WAN: Architecture, Transmission Mechanism,

Addressing, ISDN and Broadband ISDN

Transmission Media: Guided Media - Twisted Pair, Coaxial and Fiber-optic cables,

Unguided Media (Wireless): Radio and Micro Waves, Infrared

Switching Techniques: Circuit switching, Packet switching and message switching,

Telephone network, High-Speed Digital Access: DSL, Cable Modems and Sonets

Digital Signal Processing

Unit I (08 Hrs)

Classification of Signals: Analog, Discrete-time and Digital, Basic sequences and sequence

operations. Discrete-time systems, Properties of D. T. Systems and Classification, Linear Time

Invariant Systems, impulse response, linear convolution and its properties, properties of LTI

systems: stability, causality, parallel and cascade connection, Linear constant coefficient different

equations, Eigen functions for LTI systems and frequency response, Periodic Sampling, Sampling

Theorem, Frequency Domain representation of sampling, reconstruction of a band limited Signal,

A to D conversion Process: Sampling, quantization and encoding.

Unit 11 (08 Hrs)

Representation of Sequences by Fourier Transform, Symmetry properties of F. T., F. T. theorems:

Linearity, time shifting, frequency shifting, time reversal, differentiation, Parseval’s theorem,

convolution theorem, windowing theorem, Z-transform, ROC and its properties, Inverse z

transform by inspection, partial fraction, power series expansion and complex inversion, Z

transform properties: Linearity, time shifting, multiplication by exponential sequence,

differentiation, conjugation, time reversal, convolution, initial value theorem, Unilateral Ztransform:

solution of difference equation

Unit III (08 Hrs)

Frequency Response of LTI Systems: Ideal frequency selective filters, magnitude and phase

response, group delay, System Functions for LTI Systems: Stability and causality, inverse

systems, significance of poles/zeros, Frequency Response for Rational System Functions:

Frequency Response of a single zero or pole, Frequency response from pole-zero plot using

simple geometric construction, systems with Linear phase, Generalized Linear phase systems,

Four Types of GLPS

Unit IV (08 Hrs)

Sampling the F.T., Fourier representation of finite-duration sequences: The Discrete Fourier

Transform, Properties of DFT: Linearity, circular shift, duality, symmetry, Circular Convolution,

Linear Convolution using DFT, Effective computation of DFT and FFT, Goerzel Algorithm, DIT

FFT, DIP FFT, Inverse DFT using FFT, Practical considerations in FFT implementation

Unit V (08 Hrs)

Concept of filtering, Ideal filters and approximations, specifications, IIR filter design from

continuous time filters: Characteristics of Butterworth, Cheybyshev and elliptic

approximations, impulse invariant and bilinear transformation techniques, Design examples,

FIR filter design using windows: properties of commonly used windows, incorporation of

Generalized Linear Phase, Design Examples, Design using Kaiser window, Comparison of

IIR and FIR Filters

Unit VI (08 Hrs)

Block diagrams and Signal flow graph representation of LCCDE, Basic structures for IIR

Systems: direct form, cascade form, parallel form, feedback in IIR systems, Transposed Forms,

Basic Structures for FIR Systems: direct form, cascade form, structures for linear phase FIR

Systems, Finite Register Length effect

DSP Processors Architecture and Applications of DSP: Detail Study of DSP chip architecture as

an example of ADSP 21XX series of microprocessor and their desirable features, Instruction set

of ADSP 21XX series processor and some examples

Theory of Computation

Unit I (6 Mrs)

Automata Theory: Introduction to Finite Automata, Structural Representations, Automata

and Complexity, Central Concepts to Automata Theory: Alphabets, Strings, Languages and

Problems, Finite Automata: An Informal Picture of FA, Deterministic Finite Automaton

(DFA): How a DFA processes Strings, Simpler Notations for DFA, Extending the transition

function to strings, the language of DFA, Non-deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA): NFA,

Extended transition function, the language of an NFA, Equivalence of NFA and DFA, FA

with e-transitions: Use of e-transitions, NFA with e, e-closures, Extended transitions and

languages for e-N F A , E lim inating € -transitions-Con version of NFA with e to NFA without

e, Conversion of NFA without e to DFA, Conversion of NFA with 6 to DFA (direct method),

FA with output: Moore and Mealy machines -Definition, models, inter-conversion.

Unit II (6 Hrs)

Regular Expressions (RE) and Languages: Regular Expressions - Operators of RE,

Building RE, Precedence of operators, Algebraic laws for RE, Arden's Theorem, FA and RE:

DFA to RE, RE to DFA (RE to s-NFA & e-NFA to DFA and RE to DFA-direct method), FA

limitations, Properties of Regular Languages: pumping lemma for regular languages, closure

and decision properties of regular languages, Equivalence and minimization of automata,

Application of RE: Regular expressions in Unix, GREP utilities of Unix, Lexical analysis and

finding patterns in text.

Unit III (6 Hrs)

Context Free Grammars (CFG) and Languages: Context Free Grammar- Definition,

derivations, languages of a grammar, sentential form, Parse Tree- inference, derivation and

parse tree, from inference to tree, Ambiguity in grammars and languages: removal of

ambiguity, inherent ambiguity, Properties of CFL- Normal forms- Chomsky Normal Form

and Greibach Normal Form, Eliminating unit productions, useless production, useless

symbols, and e-productions, Regular Grammar - definition, left linear and right linear

Regular Grammar, Regular Grammar and Finite Automata, FA to RG and RG to FA, Interconversion

between left linear and right linear regular grammar.

Unit IV (6 Hrs)

Push Down Automata (PDA): Definition, The Language of PDA, Equivalence of PDA's

and CFG- CFG to PDA, PDA to CFG, Deterministic Push Down Automata (DPDA)-

Regular language and DPDA, DPDA and CFL, DPDA and ambiguous grammar, Nondeterministic

Push Down Automata (NPDA), The pumping lemma for CFL, Closure

properties of CFL, Decision properties of CFL, Chomsky Hierarchy, Application of CFG:

Parser, Markup languages, XML and Document Type Definitions.

Unit V (6 Hrs) Turing Machine: Problems that computers cannot solve, The Turing

Machine(TM)-Notation, the language of TM, TM and Halting, Programming techniques to TM,

Extensions to basic TM, TM and Computers. Introduction to Post Machines, Comparison

between FA, PDA, Post Machine and TM

Unit VI (6 Hrs)

Introduction to Computational Complexity: Un-decidability: A Language that is not

recursively enumerable, An un-decidable problem that is RE, Post Correspondence Problem,

Intractable Problems* The classes P and NP, Problems solvable in polynomial time, Nondeterministic

Polynomial time, Polynomial time reduction and NP-complete problems.

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

Unit I: Introduction to Pentium Microprocessors

Historical evolution of 80286, 386, and 486 processors, Pentium features and architecture, pin description, functional description, Pentium real mode, Pentium RISC features, Pentium super-scalar architecture pipelining, instruction paring rules, branch prediction, instruction and data caches, the floating-point unit

Unit II: Cycles and memory organisation

Initialisation and configuration, bus operations, reset, non-pipelined and pipelined read and write, memory organisation and I/O organisation, data transfer mechanism, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit data-but interface

Pentium programming: programmers' model, register set, addressing modes, instruction set, data types, data transfer instructions, string instructions, arithmetic instructions, logical instructions, bit manipulation instructions, program transfer instructions, processor control instructions

Unit III: Protected Mode

Introduction, segmentation/support registers, related instruction descriptions, memory management through segmentation, logical to linear address translation, protection by segmentation, privilege level protection, related instructions, inter-privilege level transfer of control, paging support registers, descriptors, linear to physical address translation, TLB, page level protection, virtual memory

Unit IV: Multitasking, Interrupts, Exceptions, and I/O

Multitasking - support registers, related descriptors, task switching, I/O permission bitmap

Virtual Mode - features, address generation, privilege level, instruction and registers available, entering and leaving V86 mode

Interrupt structure - real, protected, and virtual 8086 modes, I/O handling in the Pentium, comparison of all three modes

Unit V: 8051 microcontrollers

Micro-controller MCS-51 family architecture, on-chip data, memory and program memory organisation - register set, register bank, SFRs, external data memory and program memory, interrupt structure, timers and their programming, serial port and programming, other features, design of minimum system using 8051 microcontroller for various applications

Unit VI: PIC microcontroller

Overview and features of PIC 16-C, PIC 16F8XX, pin diagram, capture mode, compare mode, PWM mode, block diagram, programmers' model of PIC, reset and clocking.

Memory organisation - program memory, data memory, flash, EEPROM, PIC 16F8XX addressing modes, instruction set, programming, I/O ports, interrupts, timers, ADC

NOTE: I didn't know where to put a help request for such an eclectic mix of subjects, so I've put it in the catch-all "Science" area. If a mod disagrees, I request them to move it to the appropriate section.