The earth is the center of the universe. It is motionless.jovialbard wrote:I find it hard to buy that no matter where you look in the night sky, at no matter what angle, any object movement will be perpendicular to a line at an angle equivalent to your latitude. If that were the case, why is it not true for a setting sun? Does the earth move around the sun fast enough that during the time of a sunset it would affect the angle that the sun sets??? If not then the sun is static in the night(/day) sky and should be moving at the same angle as everything else up there... right??? (eta: I'm probably not getting something)
The entire universe revolves around the earth. The fixed stars, of course, revolve around it the same way every time. There is a train track that runs around the earth, roughly above the equator, but at a 22.5 degree angle to it. It is attached to the universe, not the earth. So, that track also moves with the fixed stars. If you happen to be near the equator and see the track, don't touch it. It's moving at a thousand miles an hour and will give you a smackdown.
The sun is a 93 million mile high candle, carried by a train that runs on that track (which itself is moving around the earth with the fixed stars). The train that carries it runs around the (moving) track once a year. 365 days in the year, 360 degrees in a circle, close enough. So, the sun seems to lag behind the stars by a degree a day - the same amount that the train has moved. But because the track is tilted, the sun also moves "up" and "down" (North and South) depending on where the train is on the track. It covers about 45 degrees of north-southness in half a year, and then comes back.
In one day (one 180th of a half-year) the sun moves (warning - linear approximation of a sine wave) one 180-th of 45 degrees, or about a quarter of a degree.
So, not much. But since the sun actually does change position (north to south) throughout the year, it will also change descent angle throughout the year, because the angle made by the fixed stars against the horizon depends on where on the horizon (wrt west) the stars are setting, since they move in a circle around the earth, not in a straight line.
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