I have created this thread to discuss what areas of land Israel has a right to own, which areas it doesn't, and what's still there to be decided. This thread in particular is not made to discuss very modern Israeli conflicts (e.g. the Gaza War) as the issues involving those conflicts generally aren't as much about land as they are about what constitutes reasonable force and strategy. This discussion will probably go up to about the conclusion of the 1967 war, seeing as since then Israel control over the territories has been reasonably consistent.
So, here is history as I understand it, starting at about the mid-19th century. I plan on making a mistake or two:
In the mid 19th century, the Jews were being oppressed and rejected to some degree in most European countries, which lead to the creation of the Zionist movement. Feeling dehumanized, the Jews wanted to go elsewhere and many of them naturally chose the place that they were culturally and ancestrally attached to: Israel. Back then, that area was an ungoverned and virtually unpopulated area of the Ottoman empire. There were about 450,000 people in an area that, today, has 11.5 million. (The earth's population has risen about seven-fold in that time). The Jews went to what was a desert and swampland, and transformed the area into fertile farmland. Life alongside the Palestinians was mostly fine, but there certainly upsets like the 1920's Palestinian riots.
Anyways, after World War I, England gained the mandate of Palestine and decided that they were going to Establish a Jewish state in it. In 1922, the British separated the Palestinian mandate in two, giving what was east of the Jordan River to a royal family whose name escapes me now, and designating the Jordan River and what was west of it to Israel. The British didn't really govern the area well: what with their failing to secure the peace and imposing quotas on the amount of Jews that could go to Israel (despite the fact that they had no where else to go). Jews and Palestinians pretty much set up their own government and security organizations, like the Haganah and such.
After the Holocaust and the emigration of more Jews, the international community felt that it was time to designate what land went to whom, and so the UN partition plan was drawn, designating the current Palestinian territories plus some to Palestine, Jerusalem as international territory, and the rest to Israel. Israel declared independence, willing to go with that plan, but the Arabs had rather different ideas. 22 Arab nations attacked Israel, while ethnically cleansing their Jewish populations and driving out Palestinians and Jews in the area. Israel managed to recover most of its Jews, while Palestinian refugees were pretty much screwed with no place to go. Israel, not having conceived of the possibility of the refugees wanting to return, and not wanting to welcome in a very anti-semitic and anti-Israel population, passed the infamous absentee laws, making it nearly impossible for most Palestinians to return to where they lived. The armistice lines left Israel with a bit more than the UN Partition plan gave them, though the Arabs requested that the armistice lines not be used as official borders.
Israel claimed that, as it had absorbed it's Jewish refugees, it was up to the Arab nations to absorb fix the refugee problem that they created for themselves. Of course, they didn't. Anyways, fast forwarding a few years, the Arabs start amassing troops around Israel and cutting off Israel's trade, at which point Israel strikes first to gain the advantage in the utterly certain war that was about to happen. After defeating the Arab nations and taking the land that Egypt and Jordan had annexed, Israel took some control over all of the Palestinian territories, but only annexed East Jerusalem, as the Jews (who mostly made up the population there) had been kicked out of there 19 years beforehand, and as it was the holiest site of all the major monotheistic religions. Israel, by the way, was the only country to allow joint access to that area in nearly two millenia. Israel offered all Palestinians in that area permanent Israeli citizenship, though most turned it down for political reasons. The West Bank and Gaza are supposed to be made into a homeland where the Palestinian refugees can live, but the peace process has been constantly derailed by violence from the Palestinian leadership. But I'm getting into more modern things now.
I'm sure I forgot some important things, please feel free to add.