How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

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How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby setzer777 » Mon Jun 06, 2011 5:00 pm UTC

Title basically says it all. A lot discussions on here seem to turn into arguments about what "counts" as rape, or about how prevention efforts are focused on women's preventative actions (and at what point that becomes victim-blame). Here I'm curious to hear people's thoughts on perpetrator-focused prevention.

What are the main things that motivate people to commit rape? Do you think many people commit rape due to genuine ignorance? Is it mostly committed by sociopaths who know they are hurting people and just don't give a shit? What potential steps could we take as a society to reduce the chance of someone becoming a rapist?

Edit: I know this could overlap a bit with the rape culture thread, but I'm thinking of this as more narrowly focused on the perpetrator and the circumstances that lead them to rape.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby sourmìlk » Mon Jun 06, 2011 5:10 pm UTC

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Mokele » Mon Jun 06, 2011 5:34 pm UTC

While I'm not sure it strictly falls under the topic, most rapists are repeat offenders, which suggests that if the justice system would get off its ass and actually begin convicting people and sentencing them to long prison terms (or life in prison), it would drastically reduce the number of rapes.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby aoeu » Mon Jun 06, 2011 5:53 pm UTC

Mokele wrote:While I'm not sure it strictly falls under the topic, most rapists are repeat offenders, which suggests that if the justice system would get off its ass and actually begin convicting people and sentencing them to long prison terms (or life in prison), it would drastically reduce the number of rapes.

Also, if you want to reduce the number of rapes, it's best to start at the prisons.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Vash » Thu Jun 16, 2011 11:21 am UTC

I think if you eliminate rape culture it gets rid of most rapes. Understanding why there is rape culture and then knowing how to address it is of the utmost importance. I think educating people about proper relationships between genders, why rape is wrong, and why attitudes that support rape are wrong can be an effective way to counter rape culture. There were also apparently causes of the attitudes in the first place that I saw mentioned in a study, and perhaps those could be addressed (I forgot specifically what it was. Environmental change for men?). I also think that many of the perpetrators themselves are mentally ill (nonetheless, I think that without rape culture they probably wouldn't be rapists), and would be able to be turned away from crime through better mental health care in society at large (esp. some basic education about its normalcy, acceptability, and importance, just like brushing one's teeth, not smoking cigarettes, etc.). Finally, some sort of legal changes need to be enacted to stop the effects of rape culture in the legal system. Juries that blame the victim (who is not on trial) evidently should be overridden, or jury screenings should be much better. Legislation towards the same goal (and other political action towards improving investigation of rape) is essential as well. It also is important to censure judges who blame rape victims, or at the very least, have enough public outcry that there will an influence on the system to do this.There need to be more convictions and more effective deterrence. Convicted rapists should also not be unsupervised even after release from prison. I think there needs to be more of a movement of men to create a masculist philosophy that is not so chauvinist, as well. I have complained about misandry among feminists, but misogyny among masculists is more common and severe. Masculism and feminism are literally the same thing but for opposite genders (and of course, tailored to each gender. For example, feminism has a lot more to do, since women are disadvantaged). Masculism should be supporting feminism (openly and frequently), and not be in opposition.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Роберт » Thu Jun 16, 2011 5:42 pm UTC

CorruptUser wrote:Anti-rape tampons of course!

Not that those actually stop the rape from happening.

And how would those interfere with guys being raped?
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Aaeriele » Thu Jun 16, 2011 5:57 pm UTC

Could we try to keep discussion to a reasonable topic, rather than sidetracking into gimmick/humor/etc
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Beardhammer » Fri Jun 17, 2011 6:40 am UTC

Mokele wrote:While I'm not sure it strictly falls under the topic, most rapists are repeat offenders, which suggests that if the justice system would get off its ass and actually begin convicting people and sentencing them to long prison terms (or life in prison), it would drastically reduce the number of rapes.


Problem is, prisons are already overcrowded and you aren't helping much of anyone by just throwing someone into prison and losing the key. Should he ever get out, he could just go right back to old habits unless he himself decided that what he did was wrong and seeks atonement. If he never gets out, sure you've taken one less rapist off the streets, but that's a matter of locking the well after the horse got out - someone had to get raped before he could get eliminated from the equation.

But I guess that's more of a discussion on prison system reform more than stopping people from becoming rapists.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby CorruptUser » Fri Jun 17, 2011 6:54 am UTC

To start with, not punishing the victim as harshly. If people are more willing to report rapes, then you can catch the rapists sooner before they have more chances to rape again.

Admittedly, that doesn't stop people from becoming rapists in the first place, it just reduces the chance of being raped. Well, for the people outside of prison at least.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Save Point » Fri Jun 17, 2011 8:43 am UTC

I'm not sure how to stop rapists from ever wanting to rape, but I do know that criminals generally are less inclined to commit any crime if they believe they'll be caught. I'd first focus more on detection, apprehension, and incentives for reporting more than sentencing.

'Course, whatever your views on rape culture, it would help if society was less inclined to justify this kind of behavior for, say, young men who gang bang a young girl, with the town turning the blame on the mother for not keeping a proper eye on her, and the young girl for her mode of dress. Sigh, Texas. It's as much figuring out how these people are enabled by us as anything else.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Ulc » Fri Jun 17, 2011 11:52 am UTC

(I've been thinking about this post since the thread was started, that is the reason I haven't replied earlier)

Long term, or short term?

In the long term, what I believe would actually help is to deal with rape culture. If society didn't consist of a police officer that said "if you don't want to get raped, don't dress slutty"* we would hopefully see a lot fewer rapes. But dealing with cultural values and hanging how people think is the work of generations - we aren't going to see rape culture disappear in our lifetime. That's not a excuse to not speak up of course, just a pessimist view on humanity.

Short term is a bit harder to figure out, because in the short term, we'll still be dealing with a society that high-fives instead of saying "please go away and never talk with me again you monster" to the notion of "then I got her awfully drunk and had sex with her". I think that the best place to start is with the police, educate them better on how to deal with rape survivors, rather than saying "so, do you usually flirt a lot"**, if we start right there, we might get more rape survivors to actually talk about rape, and thus make it a lot more likely that cases go to court, instead of being so traumatic to deal with for the victim that they drop the case. Which hopefully, would make it less likely that people commit rape, what with the higher chance of getting punished.

Of course, my short term solution is quite like the long term - just starting with the people that have actual power to deal with a rapist.


*Which, sadly is very real. Hence the slutwalks that has been happening recently.
** Which again, sadly is very real.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby A_pathetic_lizardmnan » Fri Jun 17, 2011 5:46 pm UTC

First, let us clearly define the problems
1) Our culture expects extreme sexuality from men. See most mass entertainment, rampant advertisements for male enhancement (making men as sexual as they "should" be), etc. This leads to the mentality that there is something wrong with men who are not having a lot of sex. Thus, men are encouraged to get sex however they can. This includes getting women drunk or otherwise impairing their judgement.
2) Our culture expects women not to know their own sexual desires, instead requiring (or at least strongly encouraging) the man to "bring out" women's sexuality. This frequently involves using alcohol or other means to impair the woman's judgement under the assumption that "she likes it."
3) People in our culture have a strong propensity to believe in a just world where anything bad that happens to someone must be a direct effect of something they were doing. People don'tlike to think "This could happen to me," so they come up with ways to rationalize that they were different from the victim of this crime. This thought pattern leads to victim blaming, which then shifts attention away from the perpetrator and discouraging victims from speaking up.

For the first problem, the obvious thing you can do if you are a heterosexual male (I am referring to heterosexual males in this section, not in an attempt to alienate anyone not fitting that category but rather because I have very limited knowledge of typical sexual dynamics outside this subset of the population) is consider what your motivations for a given sexual encounter are. Ask yourself if this is what you want, or what you think that you *should* want. If it is the former case, ask if you, as an outside observer, would think this was a good idea, and if she has unimpaired judgement. If the answer is once again yes, then by all means go ahead. If not, you should think twice before going any further.
For females, it would probably be a good thing to keep in mind that as much as males may profess to want sex at any time, this may not be entirely accurate. Male on female is not the only type of sexual aggreesion out there, so act accordingly.

The second problem is probably the most frequently discussed. I have nothing original to say about it, so I will just give two guidelines. First, assume that she knows her own mind better than anyone else. Even if she does not know herself perfectly, you have no reason to assume you know her any better. Second, try to get any friends who talk about getting a woman drunk and then having sex with her to consider the ramifications of their actions. Perhaps have them contact her again, that way they can see if they've had a damaging effect (also, to demonstrate, both to her and to your friend, that she was a person, not just a convenient orifice).

The third problem is rarely discussed, but is in fact quite important to understand. People do not like to accept that rape could be something they were involved in. Women do not want to consider the possibility that it could happen to anyone (and therefore to them), and will try to rationalize it away. Men will stereotype rapists as "creepy, desperate, crazy people in dark alleys", thus rejecting the possibility that any of *their* actions could be viewed as rape, because they are not that kind of person. In both cases, it is important to emphasize that yes, it *can* happen to them, and so they should care and try to do something about it, rather than hoping the problem will leave them alone.


If anything I have said in this post is inaccurate or offensive, I am sure that I will be told in the next 10 posts. If this happens, you should probably defer to the wisdom of those posters, given my relative lack of expertise in this field.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby DaBigCheez » Fri Jun 17, 2011 7:10 pm UTC

Good post, lizardman - a lot of rape culture is based around gender roles, and I think those are reasonable ways (and hopefully ones about which the public can be efficaciously educated) to help reduce a lot of problems. It won't fix the problem totally (as gender roles aren't all of it by any means, and this doesn't cover non-hetero relationships, which you stated as a limitation on generalizing in your post), but it would be a pretty substantial first step.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby podbaydoor » Fri Jun 17, 2011 8:00 pm UTC

People do not like to accept that rape could be something they were involved in.

That's the big problem that I see. A lot of discussion about rape (IRL and in this forum) turns into endless debate over "but what about this, does this count as rape" and many of the proposed hypothetical situations get closer and closer to things that the debaters themselves had experienced or caused. And people get stubborn about those situations and start ridiculing the notions of consent and rape because they are extremely uncomfortable with admitting or giving in to the implicit accusation that they might have been party to a rape.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Vash » Fri Jun 17, 2011 9:14 pm UTC

A_pathetic_lizardmnan wrote:Even if she does not know herself perfectly, you have no reason to assume you know her any better.


More than that, if she doesn't know herself, then you don't know her either. If this does not seem straightforward at first, let me elaborate a bit. People who don't understand themselves tend to vacillate between different possible ideas of themselves. It may be possible to tell what someone might be interested in terms of career, for example, by their tendencies and predispositions, but when it comes to attachment, it's difficult or impossible, because it's just a binary variation between love and hate. If you are confused about her, or she is confused about you, the best policy is to talk about the confusion, or even to just stay away. Get out, in fact. Going as far as sex (even if consent is given at the time) is an especially bad idea. Things that were ok at the time can also be redefined as not ok later. Non-involvement is a good policy to avoid any violations or heartaches.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby setzer777 » Fri Jun 17, 2011 10:46 pm UTC

I think another issue that comes up is the "male as subject, female as object" framework. Sex is something that a man wants to do to a woman, and that she *allows* him to do to her. It's often portrayed as being about a woman "allowing" rather than pursuing or actively participating in herself. Sometimes it seems like in general what's happening inside a woman's head during sex is discounted (beyond giving the go-ahead to the eager guy).
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Beardhammer » Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:21 am UTC

setzer777 wrote:I think another issue that comes up is the "male as subject, female as object" framework. Sex is something that a man wants to do to a woman, and that she *allows* him to do to her. It's often portrayed as being about a woman "allowing" rather than pursuing or actively participating in herself. Sometimes it seems like in general what's happening inside a woman's head during sex is discounted (beyond giving the go-ahead to the eager guy).


Stacking on top of this, a guy who goes out and get laid is a HERO, while the guy that respects the girl's privacy and feelings is a WEAK LITTLE PANSY MAN. It's that kind of mentality that supports the rape culture that people have been talking about, and I'd also say it's responsible for a lot of other dumb crap that guys and girls do when they're together (not just sexually.) It's probably the first thing that needs to be thrown out of our current culture... but as others have said, it's not something that can happen overnight.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby lutzj » Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:36 am UTC

Beardhammer wrote:but as others have said, it's not something that can happen overnight.


My worry is that the idea "men who have lots of sex are more successful" can't be thrown out of our culture; it's one of those things that is simply ingrained into living things thanks to natural selection.The best we can do without fundamentally altering human beings is to educate people about rape (i.e., make sure that people know what it is and that it is always bad) and empower people to explicitly refuse sex they don't want.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby aoeu » Sun Jun 19, 2011 7:10 am UTC

lutzj wrote:
Beardhammer wrote:but as others have said, it's not something that can happen overnight.


My worry is that the idea "men who have lots of sex are more successful" can't be thrown out of our culture; it's one of those things that is simply ingrained into living things thanks to natural selection.The best we can do without fundamentally altering human beings is to educate people about rape (i.e., make sure that people know what it is and that it is always bad) and empower people to explicitly refuse sex they don't want.


See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation_for_rape#Research_on_convicted_rapists. Most of the factors they list are cultural and can be altered. Telling people it's bad works but (I'd hope) we are already doing that.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Tania » Sun Jun 19, 2011 9:10 am UTC

Sometimes I wonder about the parents of rapists. Are all rapists from abusive families? Are some people just messed up in the head and they're going to have that mindset no matter the principles and morals they grow up with, or lack thereof?

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Iulus Cofield » Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:04 pm UTC

Having lots of sex with many partners need never involve rape. Nor would the glorification of men who have sex contribute to rape culture if it weren't paired with the pansification of men who respect women's feelings.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby setzer777 » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:44 am UTC

Iulus Cofield wrote:Having lots of sex with many partners need never involve rape. Nor would the glorification of men who have sex contribute to rape culture if it weren't paired with the pansification of men who respect women's feelings.


I think maybe a slight modification of the glorification would be good. If a man was primarily glorified for having lots of women *want* (to fuck) him. More of a focus on men as objects of desire could possibly help towards this.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Aaeriele » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:48 am UTC

Better would be to just glorify people for being good lays, and not even bring numbers into it.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Iulus Cofield » Mon Jun 20, 2011 4:01 am UTC

Oh definitely. As it stands, the glorification can lead to bad things, it's just not inherently contributory to rape culture.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Vash » Mon Jun 20, 2011 11:27 am UTC

Aaeriele wrote:Better would be to just glorify people for being good lays, and not even bring numbers into it.


IDK, there are plenty of cultures where exceptions are respected, as long as there is a good justifying philosophy. Maybe leaving numbers out for now is a good idea, though.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Deep_Thought » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:13 pm UTC

setzer777 wrote:I think another issue that comes up is the "male as subject, female as object" framework. Sex is something that a man wants to do to a woman, and that she *allows* him to do to her.

I reckon the entire way sexual matters are discussed in the English language is more than a little fucked up* and reflective of some deep seated cultural issues. It's passed from the romantic/productive - "We made love" - to the possessive - "We had sex" - to the functional via route of the obscene - "We fucked". Trying to describe a sexual encounter without using words that were originally meant to offend or are, in my opinion, quite cold and unemotional ("I had sex with her") can be pretty tricky. I try to use "We slept together" where I can, because at least it implies staying the night and possibly having breakfast as well.

And yes, I do think this ties into the topic - Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and all that. If you can only talk about sex in an emotionally negative way it quickly re-inforces itself on a cultural level. Please note I am not a linguist. Someone with the barest training in the area will probably tear this observation to shreds - feel free! I also acknowledge that people view words very differently (I have friends to whom "We fucked" is an incredibly warm emotional statement. In general usage I'd argue it isn't).
*if you'll excuse the deliberately bad choice of adjective

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby CorruptUser » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:17 pm UTC

Deep_Thought wrote:I try to use "We slept together" where I can, because at least it implies staying the night and possibly having breakfast as well.


Except that causes confusion when I do sleep with a woman, but don't have intercourse. I shouldn't have to add in the word "literally" every time I kick a bucket...

Also, what age is it unacceptable to call an adult female a "girl"? It's kind of demeaning IMHO to call a 30 year old woman a "girl", simply because you met at a bar.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby setzer777 » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:33 pm UTC

Hm, I do think it's valid to have different language to talk about casual non-romantic sex. I guess the issue is that those words can have negative possessive/one-sided connotations.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Deep_Thought » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:51 pm UTC

CorruptUser wrote:Except that causes confusion when I do sleep with a woman, but don't have intercourse. I shouldn't have to add in the word "literally" every time I kick a bucket...

Oh man, I forgot about that issue. I've had that conversation a few times!

@setzer777: You are completely right that it is valid to have the language to describe a whole range of sexual encounters. I just think our current language is pretty inadequate, and as you said often comes with negative baggage. People have essentially been inventing words to describe casual sexual encounters for the last few decades (e.g. shag, tag, pull, hook-up, booty-call, etc.), and most of them have negative connotations somewhere along the line.

After I posted I realised that another problem is people describing sexual encounters as "I [verbed] the other person", rather than "We [verbed] together". The first implies that you had sole responsibility in the matter, while the second implies that it was a mutual decision. The first is far more common in my experience. Perhaps it shouldn't be?

Also, what age is it unacceptable to call an adult female a "girl"? It's kind of demeaning IMHO to call a 30 year old woman a "girl", simply because you met at a bar.

This is an unsolved riddle of modern times. I am looking for an answer myself.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Iulus Cofield » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:57 pm UTC

Deep_Thought wrote:
setzer777 wrote:I think another issue that comes up is the "male as subject, female as object" framework. Sex is something that a man wants to do to a woman, and that she *allows* him to do to her.

I reckon the entire way sexual matters are discussed in the English language is more than a little fucked up* and reflective of some deep seated cultural issues. It's passed from the romantic/productive - "We made love" - to the possessive - "We had sex" - to the functional via route of the obscene - "We fucked". Trying to describe a sexual encounter without using words that were originally meant to offend or are, in my opinion, quite cold and unemotional ("I had sex with her") can be pretty tricky. I try to use "We slept together" where I can, because at least it implies staying the night and possibly having breakfast as well.

And yes, I do think this ties into the topic - Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and all that. If you can only talk about sex in an emotionally negative way it quickly re-inforces itself on a cultural level. Please note I am not a linguist. Someone with the barest training in the area will probably tear this observation to shreds - feel free! I also acknowledge that people view words very differently (I have friends to whom "We fucked" is an incredibly warm emotional statement. In general usage I'd argue it isn't).
*if you'll excuse the deliberately bad choice of adjective


Well, most linguists would argue that it's not language that causes us to think of things in certain ways, but the culture of the speakers affecting the way the language is spoken. It's possible to talk about sex in neutral/positive/healthy ways. "We engaged in the act of reproduction." "We became closer physically and emotionally." "We did it." Still, you're right that the probably more common euphemisms do reflect some sub-optimal views on sex.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Chen » Mon Jun 20, 2011 4:26 pm UTC

Deep_Thought wrote:
Also, what age is it unacceptable to call an adult female a "girl"? It's kind of demeaning IMHO to call a 30 year old woman a "girl", simply because you met at a bar.

This is an unsolved riddle of modern times. I am looking for an answer myself.


This seems like an evolution of language issue. "Guy" seems to have remained the standard generic male pronoun. I imagine the equivalent used to be "gal" but it seems to have evolved nowadays into "girl", when talking about generic female pronouns. Of course this is problematic since that word was already used to denote young/child females and now we have two meanings of the word which you can only really differentiate with context. And even then its not always clear.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Cheezwhiz Jenkins » Mon Jun 20, 2011 5:42 pm UTC

There was a thread on this awhile back. I find "girl" demeaning and insulting when used to refer to actual women rather than, you know, girls; I refuse to use it and correct people who use it to refer to me. I am a woman. I can have sex, drink, drive, sign contracts, and all that other lovely stuff - I am not a prepubescent female.
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby mmmcannibalism » Mon Jun 20, 2011 6:04 pm UTC

Overly anecdotal, but I think part of the problem is that in my experience, the word woman doesn't roll off the tongue* very well.

*Meaning I literally find the word more cumbersome to use in speech then any of the alternatives.
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greengiant
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby greengiant » Mon Jun 20, 2011 8:25 pm UTC

I'd guess that using 'girl' to refer to a grown woman might have something to do with the fact that the word 'girlfriend' definitely applies to adults. Not much of a leap from 'I met my girlfriend in a bar' to 'I met my girl in a bar' or even 'I met a girl in a bar'.

Also, I definitely hear 'boy' used like this too ('I met a boy in a bar', etc.) so I'd be hesitant to say it tells us anything about how gender is viewed.

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Cheezwhiz Jenkins
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Cheezwhiz Jenkins » Mon Jun 20, 2011 8:38 pm UTC

I hear boy MUCH less frequently used in this context. For example, it's common in my area to hear the term "office girl"; you will *never* hear "office boy." Boy is simply used far less often to refer to grown, adult males.
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CorruptUser
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby CorruptUser » Mon Jun 20, 2011 8:51 pm UTC

I vote we refer to people in relationships as "Manfriend" and "Womanfriend".

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Cheezwhiz Jenkins
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Cheezwhiz Jenkins » Mon Jun 20, 2011 9:00 pm UTC

I realize you're making fun of me, but fail to see the inherent humor. It just looks funny because we aren't used to saying it that way.
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Box Boy
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby Box Boy » Mon Jun 20, 2011 9:19 pm UTC

oh dear crap are we actually going from how to stop people from being rapists to how it's somehow 'wrong' to use girl or boy to when talking about adults?
really?

Can we get off this tangent like right now, please, before it gets any longer?
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TheAmazingRando
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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby TheAmazingRando » Mon Jun 20, 2011 9:27 pm UTC

I actually think it's a relevant tangent. If women are referred to as "girls" more than men are referred to as "boys," doesn't it say something about their perception in culture? That women are considered more childlike than men? Which seems pretty pervasive in other areas outside of language, given the whole "she doesn't really know what she wants" justification for rape.

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Re: How to Stop People From Becoming Rapists

Postby podbaydoor » Mon Jun 20, 2011 9:39 pm UTC

I think it's somewhat relevant. It ties into the point that setzer raised, the entire framework in which sex is viewed. Women are repeatedly infantilized in language, more often than men are. "Hey, man." "Hey, girl." I personally do feel uncomfortable characterizing any female person older than 18 as a girl and try to correct myself to "woman" even in spoken speech.
tenet |ˈtenit|
noun
a principle or belief, esp. one of the main principles of a religion or philosophy : the tenets of classical liberalism.
tenant |ˈtenənt|
noun
a person who occupies land or property rented from a landlord.


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