Offend a moderator

For all your silly time-killing forum games.

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Sungura
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Sungura » Sat Jun 07, 2008 10:54 pm UTC

Mine's way bigger than yours, Cheese. My siggi is twice as big as well.
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LE4dGOLEM
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby LE4dGOLEM » Sun Jun 08, 2008 11:15 am UTC

That's what you get for rolling prosilver.
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Cheese
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Cheese » Fri Sep 05, 2008 11:55 pm UTC

Eww, prosilver.
hermaj wrote:No-one. Will. Be. Taking. Cheese's. Spot.
Spoiler:
LE4dGOLEM wrote:Cheese is utterly correct on all fronts.
SecondTalon wrote:That thing that Cheese just said. Do that.
Meaux_Pas wrote:I hereby disagree and declare Cheese to be brilliant.
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Asmodieus » Sat Sep 06, 2008 9:27 pm UTC

something offensive from 4chan
kthnxbai i can has ban nao>?
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Babam » Sat Sep 06, 2008 11:42 pm UTC

>Newf**** Can't Green Text
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby suckmeoff6969 » Thu Nov 13, 2008 12:49 am UTC

Necro'd, because this is a fun thread!

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby eaglef2 » Sat Apr 25, 2009 6:11 am UTC

Muhahahahaha, bringing back a dead thread ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby scienceroboticspunk » Sun Aug 22, 2010 4:10 am UTC

Necro, I was gonna make this thread but searched for it and it existed, so I will say what is terrible about every mod even if I havnt even seen them on the fora.


Belial - fucking dinosaur, go eat a shit sandwich
Hammer - cant insult, always seems helpful in dear sb and seems nice
xkcd - your just a bunch of fucking letters
davean - your fucking blue, make me a mod

Gordon - your a yellow banana bitch
Azreal - all the beers you ever liked suck shit and your mother is a whore
gmailfuck - stop fornicating with gmail, thats a terrible thing to do
Hawknc - you like to roll arounnd in deer shit
juttingrabbit - your a monkey skank
Mighty Jalapeno - go put yourself on a spicy pizza
parkaboy - your jacket sucks
phillip - your name is about as normal as sex with your mum
rinsildkiu - I cant spell your name asshole
SecondTalon - there is nothing sexy about you, ever
Girltm - your a trademark
meuuax_pose - ummm you seem not english
felstaff - go suck a staff
fjafjafjafjafjaflan - your name is fun to spell but the rest of you sucks
kira - go be more known in forum areas I visit so I can figure out how to insult you
lanicita - umm. you are censorship?
LED$Golem - you are a sucky moderater for moderating yoursalf in this thread
Matt - your name is bad and you should feel bad
realGrouchy - I wont get off your lawn
thefiddler- you lost the contest to the devil and are now in hell
MFHodge - ummm you are a prelate and below everyone else on the fora
spitvalve - you are not a mod so no reason to offend you

This is all possible thanks to the greatness of the list of the team and the power of vodka
these are words
type, type, type

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Kromix
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Kromix » Sun Aug 22, 2010 5:01 pm UTC

scienceroboticspunk wrote:Necro, I was gonna make this thread but searched for it and it existed, so I will say what is terrible about every mod even if I havnt even seen them on the fora.


Belial - fucking dinosaur, go eat a shit sandwich
Hammer - cant insult, always seems helpful in dear sb and seems nice
xkcd - your just a bunch of fucking letters
davean - your fucking blue, make me a mod

Gordon - your a yellow banana bitch
Azreal - all the beers you ever liked suck shit and your mother is a whore
gmailfuck - stop fornicating with gmail, thats a terrible thing to do
Hawknc - you like to roll arounnd in deer shit
juttingrabbit - your a monkey skank
Mighty Jalapeno - go put yourself on a spicy pizza
parkaboy - your jacket sucks
phillip - your name is about as normal as sex with your mum
rinsildkiu - I cant spell your name asshole
SexyTalon - there is nothing sexy about you, ever
Girltm - your a trademark
meuuax_pose - ummm you seem not english
felstaff - go suck a staff
fjafjafjafjafjaflan - your name is fun to spell but the rest of you sucks
kira - go be more known in forum areas I visit so I can figure out how to insult you
lanicita - umm. you are censorship?
LED$Golem - you are a sucky moderater for moderating yoursalf in this thread
Matt - your name is bad and you should feel bad
realGrouchy - I wont get off your lawn
thefiddler- you lost the contest to the devil and are now in hell
MFHodge - ummm you are a prelate and below everyone else on the fora
spitvalve - you are not a mod so no reason to offend you

This is all possible thanks to the greatness of the list of the team and the power of vodka


hah you used red :lol:
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LucasBrown
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby LucasBrown » Sun Aug 22, 2010 6:33 pm UTC

HEY, LOOK! I'M WRITING IN RED!

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_infina_
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby _infina_ » Sun Aug 22, 2010 7:15 pm UTC

I could greatly offend them by saying that a three-year-old with a red pen could do a better job of modding the fora than they do, but that might be going a little to far.
Spoiler:
keozen wrote:It took us exactly 3 pages to turn a discussion of a loved children's book series into smut...
TheGrammarBolshevik wrote:Only if your friends know what rhino dong smells like.

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Phrozt
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Phrozt » Mon Aug 23, 2010 7:05 pm UTC

Chuck Norris is the most overrated pre-teen idol since new kids on the block.

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby _infina_ » Mon Aug 23, 2010 7:53 pm UTC

Now i think this may be going to far, but All the mods like Justin Bieber.
Spoiler:
keozen wrote:It took us exactly 3 pages to turn a discussion of a loved children's book series into smut...
TheGrammarBolshevik wrote:Only if your friends know what rhino dong smells like.

Malo mbwa mwitu

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Kromix
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Kromix » Mon Aug 23, 2010 8:37 pm UTC

_infina_ wrote:Now i think this may be going to far, but All the mods like Justin Bieber.



All the mods look and act like Justin Bieber
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Vapour
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Vapour » Tue Aug 24, 2010 9:55 am UTC

All the mods look and act like Justin Bieber


Woah, bringing out the big guns.

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Kromix » Tue Aug 24, 2010 1:26 pm UTC

/toss water bottle

*critical hit* *head shot*
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Vapour » Tue Aug 24, 2010 1:30 pm UTC

KO

bobjoesmith
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby bobjoesmith » Wed Aug 25, 2010 6:52 pm UTC

post

bobjoesmith
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby bobjoesmith » Wed Aug 25, 2010 6:53 pm UTC

double post

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby bobjoesmith » Wed Aug 25, 2010 6:53 pm UTC

tripple post

bobjoesmith
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby bobjoesmith » Wed Aug 25, 2010 6:53 pm UTC

quadrupple post

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby TiglathPileser3 » Thu Aug 26, 2010 8:05 pm UTC

bobjoesmith wrote:tripple post
bobjoesmith wrote:double post
bobjoesmith wrote:post
bobjoesmith wrote:quadrupple post

Hang on, I'm not sure I got that. Can you repeat it?

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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Kromix » Thu Aug 26, 2010 8:16 pm UTC

bobjoesmith wrote:post

bobjoesmith wrote:double post
bobjoesmith wrote:tripple post
bobjoesmith wrote:quadrupple post
TiglathPileser3 wrote:
bobjoesmith wrote:tripple post
bobjoesmith wrote:double post
bobjoesmith wrote:post
bobjoesmith wrote:quadrupple post

Hang on, I'm not sure I got that. Can you repeat it?


Recursion?


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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Headshrinker » Fri Aug 27, 2010 5:00 pm UTC

[close]
Baltimore Steam Packet Company
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The Old Bay Line's District of Columbia in 1949

The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, also known as the Old Bay Line, was an American steamship line from 1840 to 1962, providing overnite steamboat service on the Chesapeake Bay, primarily between Baltimore, Maryland and Norfolk, Virginia. Called a "packet" for the mail packets carried on government mail contracts, the term in the 19th century came to mean a steamer line operating on a regular, fixed daily schedule between two or more cities. By the time the venerable packet line ceased operation in 1962 after 122 years of existence, it was the last surviving overnight steamship passenger service in the United States.[1][2]

In addition to regularly calling on Baltimore and Norfolk, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company also provided freight, passenger and vehicle transport to Washington, D.C., Old Point Comfort, and Richmond, Virginia, at various times during its history. The Old Bay Line, as it came to be known by the 1860s, was acclaimed for its genteel service and fine dining, serving Chesapeake Bay specialties. Walter Lord, famed author of A Night to Remember and whose grandfather had been the packet line's president from 1893 to 1899, mused that its reputation for excellent service was attributable to "... some magical blending of the best in the North and the South, made possible by the Company's unique role in 'bridging' the two sections ... the North contributed its tradition of mechanical proficiency, making the ships so reliable; while the South contributed its gracious ease".[2]

One of the Old Bay Line's steamers, the former President Warfield, later became famous as the Exodus ship of book and movie fame, when Jewish refugees from war-torn Europe sailed aboard her in 1947 in an unsuccessful attempt to emigrate to Palestine.
Old Bay Line 1950s timetable
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
o 1.1 1840s–1850s
o 1.2 1860s–1910s
+ 1.2.1 World War I and aftermath
o 1.3 1920s–1930s
o 1.4 1940s
+ 1.4.1 World War II
+ 1.4.2 Postwar and the Exodus
o 1.5 1950s and demise
* 2 Routes operated
* 3 Old Bay Line fleet
* 4 See also
* 5 References

[edit] History

Just seven years after Robert Fulton proved the commercial viability of steam-powered ships with his North River Steamboat (more commonly known today as Clermont) in 1807, small wood-burning steamers began to ply the Chesapeake Bay. Prior to the coming of the railroads and river steamboats in the early 19th century, overland travel was an exceedingly slow and tedious undertaking.[2] Rivers were the main means of transportation and most cities were founded on them. This was especially so in North America, where journeys over vast distances of hundreds or even thousands of miles required months of hazardous, uncomfortable travel by stagecoach or wagon on rutted, unpaved trails. In the 1830s, railroads were being built, but the technology was crude and average passenger train speed was only 12 miles per hour (19 km/h).[3] It would be many years before the various lines were knitted together to make intercity rail travel in the U.S. a reality. Not until 1863, for example, was it possible to travel between New York City and Washington, D. C., without changing trains en route.[4]

In this environment, steamships traveling on rivers such as the Ohio and Mississippi or large inland bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay offered a comfortable and relatively fast mode of transportation. The first steamboat to serve Baltimore was the locally built Chesapeake, constructed in 1813 to link Baltimore with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Operated by the Union Line, the boat connected with a stagecoach for the overland portion of the journey.[5] Two years later, the Briscoe-Partridge Line's Eagle was the first steamboat to sail the length of Chesapeake Bay.[3]

A direct ancestor of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company was the Maryland & Virginia Steam Boat Company formed in 1828 to link Baltimore, Richmond, and Norfolk, traversing the Chesapeake Bay and the James River. By 1839, the Maryland & Virginia was heavily in debt from the purchase of two new, large ships the year before: the 210-foot (64 m) long Alabama and the 173-foot (53 m) Jewess. The Alabama was expensive to operate and proved to be impractical for Chesapeake Bay operations, causing the bankruptcy of the Maryland & Virginia later that year.[5]
[edit] 1840s–1850s

When the Maryland & Virginia collapsed in late 1839, the Maryland legislature convened to grant a charter to the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, organized in Baltimore to provide overnight steamship service on the Chesapeake Bay. The company was granted a 20-year charter on March 18, 1840 by the Maryland legislature and then acquired three of the former Maryland & Virginia's steamboats: Pocahontas, Georgia, and Jewess.[5][6][7] The company began overnight paddlewheel steamship passenger and freight service daily except Sundays between Baltimore and Norfolk, under the company's first president, Andrew Fisher Henderson. Also instrumental in the company's founding was Thomas Kelso, who subsequently served as a director of the line. By 1848, the company's steamship Herald was making the trip in less than 12 hours, a time which the line would maintain until the end in 1962.[8] An affiliate, the Powhatan Line, started service between Norfolk and Richmond in 1845, interchanging freight and passengers with the Old Bay Line.[8]

By the 1850s, competition was keen as steamships grew in size and efficiency to serve the fast-growing nation. The Old Bay Line, in particular, served as a link between the antebellum South and northern markets, hauling large quantities of cotton north and manufactured goods south, along with a thriving passenger business between Baltimore and Norfolk. Railroads also began acquiring steamship lines in the 1850s, and the Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad, a predecessor of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P), acquired a controlling interest in the Baltimore Steam Packet Company in 1851.[8] As competitors entered the field, each line vied to outdo its competitors in the luxurious appointments of their ships' staterooms and dining service. The company acquired newer and larger ships in the 1850s, such as the North Carolina in 1852 and the Louisiana in 1854, the latter at 266 feet (81 m) in length being the largest wooden vessel the company would own.[8] A passenger on the Baltimore Steam Packet Company's Georgia, carried away by delight over his travel experience in 1853, was effusive in his description of an overnight trip. Writing in the florid language of the time, he said:

I know of no more delightful trip from Baltimore down the Chesapeake ... upon the broad blue waters with an exquisite breeze, which came up with invigorating freshness from the silver waves. Night came on, and her azure curtain gemmed with myriad stars was drawn over the expanse above.
—W.S. Forrest, Historical Sketches of Norfolk, 1853[9]

The North Carolina similarly impressed a Baltimore Patriot reporter in 1852, who described the ship's dining saloon as "having imported
* the log canoe
* the pungy
* the bugeye
* the Chesapeake Bay deadrise

Today, the body of water is less productive than it used to be, because of runoff from urban areas (mostly on the Western Shore) and farms (especially on the Eastern Shore), over harvesting, and invasion of foreign species. The bay still yields more fish and shellfish (about 45,000 short tons or 40,000 tonnes yearly) than any other estuary in the United States.

The bay is famous for its rockfish, also known as striped bass. Once on the verge of extinction, rockfish have made a significant comeback due to legislative action that put a moratorium on rockfishing, which allowed the species to repopulate. Rockfish are now able to be fished in strictly controlled and limited quantities.

Oyster farming is a growing industry for the bay to help maintain the bay's productivity as well as a natural effort for filtering impurities in the bay in an effort to reduce the disastrous effects of man-made pollution.

In 2005, local governments began debate on the introduction to certain parts of the bay of a species of Asian oyster, to revive the lagging shellfish industry.
[edit] Deteriorating environmental conditions
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay

In the 1970s, the Chesapeake Bay was discovered to contain one of the planet's first identified marine dead zones, where hypoxic waters were so depleted of oxygen they were unable to support life, resulting in massive fish kills. Today the bay's dead zones are estimated to kill 75,000 tons of bottom-dwelling clams and worms each year, weakening the base of the estuary's food chain and robbing the blue crab in particular of a primary food source. Crabs themselves are sometimes observed to amass on shore to escape pockets of oxygen-poor water, a behavior known as a "crab jubilee". Hypoxia results in part from large algal blooms, which are nourished by the runoff of farm and industrial waste throughout the watershed. The runoff and pollution have many components that help contribute to the algal blooms which is mainly fed by phosphorus and nitrogen.[12] This algae prevents sunlight from reaching the bottom of the bay while alive and deoxygenates the bay's water when it dies and rots. The erosion and runoff of sediment into the bay, exacerbated by devegetation, construction and the prevalence of pavement in urban and suburban areas, also blocks vital sunlight. The resulting loss of aquatic vegetation has depleted the habitat for much of the bay's animal life. Beds of eelgrass, the dominant variety in the southern bay, have shrunk by more than half there since the early 1970s. Overharvesting, pollution, sedimentation and disease has turned much of the bay's bottom into a muddy wasteland.[13]

One particularly harmful source of toxicity is Pfiesteria piscicida, which can affect both fish and humans. Pfiesteria caused a small regional panic in the late 1990s when a series of large blooms started killing large numbers of fish while giving swimmers mysterious rashes, and nutrient runoff from chicken farms was blamed for the growth.[14]
[edit] Depletion of oysters

While the bay's salinity is ideal for oysters, and the oyster fishery was at one time the bay's most commercially viable,[15] the population has in the last fifty years been devastated. Maryland once had roughly 200,000 acres of oyster reefs. Today it has about 36,000.[15] It has been estimated that in pre-colonial times, oysters could filter the entirety of the Bay in about 3.3 days; by 1988 this time had increased to 325 days.[16] The harvest's gross value decreased 88% from 1982 to 2007.[17]

The primary problem is overharvesting. Lax government regulations allow anyone with a license to remove oysters from state-owned beds, and although limits are set, they are not strongly enforced.[15] The overharvesting of oysters has made it difficult for them to reproduce, which requires close proximity to one another. A second cause for the oyster depletion is that the drastic increase in human population caused a sharp increase in pollution flowing into the bay.[15]

The bay's oyster industry has also suffered from two diseases: MSX and Dermo.[18]
[edit] Oyster recovery attempts

The depletion of oysters due to overharvesting and damaged habitat has had a particularly harmful effect on the quality of the bay. Oysters serve as natural water filters, and their decline has further reduced the water quality of the bay. Water that was once clear for meters is now so turbid that a wader may lose sight of their feet before their knees are wet.

Efforts of federal, state and local governments, working in partnership through the Chesapeake Bay Program, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and other nonprofit environmental groups, to restore or at least maintain the current water quality have had mixed results. One particular obstacle to cleaning up the bay is that much of the polluting substances arise far upstream in tributaries lying within states far removed from the bay itself. Despite the state of Maryland spending over $100 million to restore the bay, conditions have continued to grow worse. Twenty years ago, the bay supported over six thousand oystermen. There are now fewer than 500.[19]

Efforts to repopulate the bay with via hatcheries have been carried out by a group called the Oyster Recovery Partnership, with some success. They recently placed 6 million oysters on eight acres of the Trent Hall sanctuary.[20] Scientists from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William & Mary claim that experimental reefs created in 2004 now house 180 million native oysters, Crassostrea virginica, which is far less than the billions that once existed.[21]
[edit] Tourism

The Chesapeake Bay is a main feature for tourists who visit Maryland and Virginia each year. Fishing, crabbing, swimming, boating, and sailing are extremely popular activities enjoyed on the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. As a result, tourism has a notable impact on Maryland's economy.
[edit] See also

* Chesepian
* Delmarva Peninsula
* Dead zone (ecology)
* Chesapeake, a novel by author James A. Michener
* Chessie (sea monster)
* National Estuarine Research Reserve System
* List of islands in Maryland (with the islands in the bay)
* Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation
* Chesapeake Climate Action Network
* Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System

[edit] References

1. ^ a b "Fact Sheet 102-98 - The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". U. S. Geological Survey. 1998-11-18. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs102-98/. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
2. ^ Also shown as "Chisupioc" (by John Smith) and "Chisapeack", in Algonquian "Che" means "big" or "great", "sepi" means river, and the "oc" or "ok" ending indicated something (a village, in this case) "at" that feature. "Sepi" is also found in another placename of Algonquian origin, Mississippi. The name was soon transferred by the English from the big river at that site to the big bay. Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 23.
3. ^ Farenthold, David A. (2006-12-12). "A Dead Indian Language Is Brought Back to Life". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... components. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
4. ^ "FAQ". Scientists Cliffs community. http://www.scientistscliffs.org/HTML/FAQs/FAQs.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
5. ^ "Geography". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. http://www.cbf.org/site/PageServer?page ... _geography. Retrieved 2008-04-21. Other sources give values of 25 feet (e.g. "Charting the Chesapeake 1590-1990". Maryland State Archives. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc220 ... front.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21. ) or 30 feet deep ("Healthy Chesapeake Waterways" (PDF). University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. http://ian.umces.edu/pdfs/iannewsletter1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21. )
6. ^ "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -2,00.html. Retrieved 2007-03-19
7. ^ Grymes, Charles A. "Spanish in the Chesapeake". http://www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/spanish.html. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
8. ^ Weber, David (1994). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 36, 37.
9. ^ "H.R. 5466 [109th] Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Designation Act". GovTrack.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-5466. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
10. ^ Domes S., Lewis M., Moran R., Nyman D.. “Chesapeake Bay Wetlands”. Emporia State University. May 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
11. ^ "Chesapeake Bay Workboats". Chesapeake Bay Gateway Network. http://www.baygateways.net/workboats.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
12. ^ Dennen, R. (2009-10-30). “Is it time we put the ailing Bay on diet?”. The Free Lance Star. Retrieved 2010-02-17
13. ^ "Bad Water and the Decline of Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake Bay". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2008-12. http://www.cbf.org/Document.Doc?id=172. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
14. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (2008-09-12). "Md. Gets Tough on Chicken Farmers". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... 03841.html.
15. ^ a b c d Oysters: Gem of the Ocean, The Economist, December 8, 2008; accessed September 2, 2009.
16. ^ "Oyster Reefs: Ecological importance". US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://habitat.noaa.gov/restorationtech ... TopicID=11. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
17. ^ "Estimating Net Present Value in the Northern Chesapeake Bay Oyster Fishery". NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office. 2008-11-07. http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/OysterEIS ... _rev_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
18. ^ "Research – Shellfish Diseases". Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 2007-03-16. http://www.vims.edu/env/research/shellfish/. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
19. ^ Urbina, Ian (November 29, 2008). In Maryland, Focus on Poultry Industry Pollution. The New York Times. p. A14. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/us/29 ... ss&emc=rss
20. ^ Program turns pork into oysters, Jesse Yeatman, South Maryland Newspapers Online, August 12, 2009.
21. ^ Oysters Are on the Rebound in the Chesapeake Bay, Henry Fountain, The New York Times, August 3, 2009; accessed September 8, 2009.

[edit] Further reading

* Cleaves, E.T. et al. (2006). Quaternary geologic map of the Chesapeake Bay 4º x 6º quadrangle, United States [Miscellaneous Investigations Series; Map I-1420 (NJ-18)]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
* Phillips, S.W., ed. (2007). Synthesis of U.S. Geological Survey science for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and implications for environmental management [U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1316]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

[edit] Bay area publications
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links or by converting links into footnote references. (July 2010)

* The Capital Newspaper – The news of the Chesapeake's western shore and Annapolis
* Chesapeake Bay Magazine – Lifestyle magazine concerning the Chesapeake Bay region
* PropTalk – Chesapeake Bay powerboating magazine
* SpinSheet – Chesapeake Bay sailing magazine

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Chesapeake Bay

* Bay Backpack – Chesapeake Bay education resources for educators
* Chesapeake Bay Foundation
* Chesapeake Research Consortium
* Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay
* Chesapeake Bay Program
* Chesapeake Bay Journal
* Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network
* Chesapeake Community Modeling Program
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge (near Annapolis, MD)
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel
* Maryland Sea Grant
* National Geographic- Saving The Chesapeake
* National Geographic- Exploring The Chesapeake Then and Now
* National Geographic Magazine Jamestown/Werowocomoco Interactive
* Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Water Trail.
* University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Research and science application activities emphasizing Chesapeake Bay and its watershed.
* Chesapeake Bay Health Report Card
* Always-Updated Event Calendar for the Chesapeake Bay.

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Baltimore Steam Packet Company
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The Old Bay Line's District of Columbia in 1949

The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, also known as the Old Bay Line, was an American steamship line from 1840 to 1962, providing overnite steamboat service on the Chesapeake Bay, primarily between Baltimore, Maryland and Norfolk, Virginia. Called a "packet" for the mail packets carried on government mail contracts, the term in the 19th century came to mean a steamer line operating on a regular, fixed daily schedule between two or more cities. By the time the venerable packet line ceased operation in 1962 after 122 years of existence, it was the last surviving overnight steamship passenger service in the United States.[1][2]

In addition to regularly calling on Baltimore and Norfolk, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company also provided freight, passenger and vehicle transport to Washington, D.C., Old Point Comfort, and Richmond, Virginia, at various times during its history. The Old Bay Line, as it came to be known by the 1860s, was acclaimed for its genteel service and fine dining, serving Chesapeake Bay specialties. Walter Lord, famed author of A Night to Remember and whose grandfather had been the packet line's president from 1893 to 1899, mused that its reputation for excellent service was attributable to "... some magical blending of the best in the North and the South, made possible by the Company's unique role in 'bridging' the two sections ... the North contributed its tradition of mechanical proficiency, making the ships so reliable; while the South contributed its gracious ease".[2]

One of the Old Bay Line's steamers, the former President Warfield, later became famous as the Exodus ship of book and movie fame, when Jewish refugees from war-torn Europe sailed aboard her in 1947 in an unsuccessful attempt to emigrate to Palestine.
Old Bay Line 1950s timetable
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
o 1.1 1840s–1850s
o 1.2 1860s–1910s
+ 1.2.1 World War I and aftermath
o 1.3 1920s–1930s
o 1.4 1940s
+ 1.4.1 World War II
+ 1.4.2 Postwar and the Exodus
o 1.5 1950s and demise
* 2 Routes operated
* 3 Old Bay Line fleet
* 4 See also
* 5 References

[edit] History

Just seven years after Robert Fulton proved the commercial viability of steam-powered ships with his North River Steamboat (more commonly known today as Clermont) in 1807, small wood-burning steamers began to ply the Chesapeake Bay. Prior to the coming of the railroads and river steamboats in the early 19th century, overland travel was an exceedingly slow and tedious undertaking.[2] Rivers were the main means of transportation and most cities were founded on them. This was especially so in North America, where journeys over vast distances of hundreds or even thousands of miles required months of hazardous, uncomfortable travel by stagecoach or wagon on rutted, unpaved trails. In the 1830s, railroads were being built, but the technology was crude and average passenger train speed was only 12 miles per hour (19 km/h).[3] It would be many years before the various lines were knitted together to make intercity rail travel in the U.S. a reality. Not until 1863, for example, was it possible to travel between New York City and Washington, D. C., without changing trains en route.[4]

In this environment, steamships traveling on rivers such as the Ohio and Mississippi or large inland bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay offered a comfortable and relatively fast mode of transportation. The first steamboat to serve Baltimore was the locally built Chesapeake, constructed in 1813 to link Baltimore with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Operated by the Union Line, the boat connected with a stagecoach for the overland portion of the journey.[5] Two years later, the Briscoe-Partridge Line's Eagle was the first steamboat to sail the length of Chesapeake Bay.[3]

A direct ancestor of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company was the Maryland & Virginia Steam Boat Company formed in 1828 to link Baltimore, Richmond, and Norfolk, traversing the Chesapeake Bay and the James River. By 1839, the Maryland & Virginia was heavily in debt from the purchase of two new, large ships the year before: the 210-foot (64 m) long Alabama and the 173-foot (53 m) Jewess. The Alabama was expensive to operate and proved to be impractical for Chesapeake Bay operations, causing the bankruptcy of the Maryland & Virginia later that year.[5]
[edit] 1840s–1850s

When the Maryland & Virginia collapsed in late 1839, the Maryland legislature convened to grant a charter to the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, organized in Baltimore to provide overnight steamship service on the Chesapeake Bay. The company was granted a 20-year charter on March 18, 1840 by the Maryland legislature and then acquired three of the former Maryland & Virginia's steamboats: Pocahontas, Georgia, and Jewess.[5][6][7] The company began overnight paddlewheel steamship passenger and freight service daily except Sundays between Baltimore and Norfolk, under the company's first president, Andrew Fisher Henderson. Also instrumental in the company's founding was Thomas Kelso, who subsequently served as a director of the line. By 1848, the company's steamship Herald was making the trip in less than 12 hours, a time which the line would maintain until the end in 1962.[8] An affiliate, the Powhatan Line, started service between Norfolk and Richmond in 1845, interchanging freight and passengers with the Old Bay Line.[8]

By the 1850s, competition was keen as steamships grew in size and efficiency to serve the fast-growing nation. The Old Bay Line, in particular, served as a link between the antebellum South and northern markets, hauling large quantities of cotton north and manufactured goods south, along with a thriving passenger business between Baltimore and Norfolk. Railroads also began acquiring steamship lines in the 1850s, and the Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad, a predecessor of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P), acquired a controlling interest in the Baltimore Steam Packet Company in 1851.[8] As competitors entered the field, each line vied to outdo its competitors in the luxurious appointments of their ships' staterooms and dining service. The company acquired newer and larger ships in the 1850s, such as the North Carolina in 1852 and the Louisiana in 1854, the latter at 266 feet (81 m) in length being the largest wooden vessel the company would own.[8] A passenger on the Baltimore Steam Packet Company's Georgia, carried away by delight over his travel experience in 1853, was effusive in his description of an overnight trip. Writing in the florid language of the time, he said:

I know of no more delightful trip from Baltimore down the Chesapeake ... upon the broad blue waters with an exquisite breeze, which came up with invigorating freshness from the silver waves. Night came on, and her azure curtain gemmed with myriad stars was drawn over the expanse above.
—W.S. Forrest, Historical Sketches of Norfolk, 1853[9]

The North Carolina similarly impressed a Baltimore Patriot reporter in 1852, who described the ship's dining saloon as "having imported
* the log canoe
* the pungy
* the bugeye
* the Chesapeake Bay deadrise

Today, the body of water is less productive than it used to be, because of runoff from urban areas (mostly on the Western Shore) and farms (especially on the Eastern Shore), over harvesting, and invasion of foreign species. The bay still yields more fish and shellfish (about 45,000 short tons or 40,000 tonnes yearly) than any other estuary in the United States.

The bay is famous for its rockfish, also known as striped bass. Once on the verge of extinction, rockfish have made a significant comeback due to legislative action that put a moratorium on rockfishing, which allowed the species to repopulate. Rockfish are now able to be fished in strictly controlled and limited quantities.

Oyster farming is a growing industry for the bay to help maintain the bay's productivity as well as a natural effort for filtering impurities in the bay in an effort to reduce the disastrous effects of man-made pollution.

In 2005, local governments began debate on the introduction to certain parts of the bay of a species of Asian oyster, to revive the lagging shellfish industry.
[edit] Deteriorating environmental conditions
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay

In the 1970s, the Chesapeake Bay was discovered to contain one of the planet's first identified marine dead zones, where hypoxic waters were so depleted of oxygen they were unable to support life, resulting in massive fish kills. Today the bay's dead zones are estimated to kill 75,000 tons of bottom-dwelling clams and worms each year, weakening the base of the estuary's food chain and robbing the blue crab in particular of a primary food source. Crabs themselves are sometimes observed to amass on shore to escape pockets of oxygen-poor water, a behavior known as a "crab jubilee". Hypoxia results in part from large algal blooms, which are nourished by the runoff of farm and industrial waste throughout the watershed. The runoff and pollution have many components that help contribute to the algal blooms which is mainly fed by phosphorus and nitrogen.[12] This algae prevents sunlight from reaching the bottom of the bay while alive and deoxygenates the bay's water when it dies and rots. The erosion and runoff of sediment into the bay, exacerbated by devegetation, construction and the prevalence of pavement in urban and suburban areas, also blocks vital sunlight. The resulting loss of aquatic vegetation has depleted the habitat for much of the bay's animal life. Beds of eelgrass, the dominant variety in the southern bay, have shrunk by more than half there since the early 1970s. Overharvesting, pollution, sedimentation and disease has turned much of the bay's bottom into a muddy wasteland.[13]

One particularly harmful source of toxicity is Pfiesteria piscicida, which can affect both fish and humans. Pfiesteria caused a small regional panic in the late 1990s when a series of large blooms started killing large numbers of fish while giving swimmers mysterious rashes, and nutrient runoff from chicken farms was blamed for the growth.[14]
[edit] Depletion of oysters

While the bay's salinity is ideal for oysters, and the oyster fishery was at one time the bay's most commercially viable,[15] the population has in the last fifty years been devastated. Maryland once had roughly 200,000 acres of oyster reefs. Today it has about 36,000.[15] It has been estimated that in pre-colonial times, oysters could filter the entirety of the Bay in about 3.3 days; by 1988 this time had increased to 325 days.[16] The harvest's gross value decreased 88% from 1982 to 2007.[17]

The primary problem is overharvesting. Lax government regulations allow anyone with a license to remove oysters from state-owned beds, and although limits are set, they are not strongly enforced.[15] The overharvesting of oysters has made it difficult for them to reproduce, which requires close proximity to one another. A second cause for the oyster depletion is that the drastic increase in human population caused a sharp increase in pollution flowing into the bay.[15]

The bay's oyster industry has also suffered from two diseases: MSX and Dermo.[18]
[edit] Oyster recovery attempts

The depletion of oysters due to overharvesting and damaged habitat has had a particularly harmful effect on the quality of the bay. Oysters serve as natural water filters, and their decline has further reduced the water quality of the bay. Water that was once clear for meters is now so turbid that a wader may lose sight of their feet before their knees are wet.

Efforts of federal, state and local governments, working in partnership through the Chesapeake Bay Program, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and other nonprofit environmental groups, to restore or at least maintain the current water quality have had mixed results. One particular obstacle to cleaning up the bay is that much of the polluting substances arise far upstream in tributaries lying within states far removed from the bay itself. Despite the state of Maryland spending over $100 million to restore the bay, conditions have continued to grow worse. Twenty years ago, the bay supported over six thousand oystermen. There are now fewer than 500.[19]

Efforts to repopulate the bay with via hatcheries have been carried out by a group called the Oyster Recovery Partnership, with some success. They recently placed 6 million oysters on eight acres of the Trent Hall sanctuary.[20] Scientists from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William & Mary claim that experimental reefs created in 2004 now house 180 million native oysters, Crassostrea virginica, which is far less than the billions that once existed.[21]
[edit] Tourism

The Chesapeake Bay is a main feature for tourists who visit Maryland and Virginia each year. Fishing, crabbing, swimming, boating, and sailing are extremely popular activities enjoyed on the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. As a result, tourism has a notable impact on Maryland's economy.
[edit] See also

* Chesepian
* Delmarva Peninsula
* Dead zone (ecology)
* Chesapeake, a novel by author James A. Michener
* Chessie (sea monster)
* National Estuarine Research Reserve System
* List of islands in Maryland (with the islands in the bay)
* Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation
* Chesapeake Climate Action Network
* Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System

[edit] References

1. ^ a b "Fact Sheet 102-98 - The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". U. S. Geological Survey. 1998-11-18. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs102-98/. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
2. ^ Also shown as "Chisupioc" (by John Smith) and "Chisapeack", in Algonquian "Che" means "big" or "great", "sepi" means river, and the "oc" or "ok" ending indicated something (a village, in this case) "at" that feature. "Sepi" is also found in another placename of Algonquian origin, Mississippi. The name was soon transferred by the English from the big river at that site to the big bay. Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 23.
3. ^ Farenthold, David A. (2006-12-12). "A Dead Indian Language Is Brought Back to Life". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... components. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
4. ^ "FAQ". Scientists Cliffs community. http://www.scientistscliffs.org/HTML/FAQs/FAQs.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
5. ^ "Geography". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. http://www.cbf.org/site/PageServer?page ... _geography. Retrieved 2008-04-21. Other sources give values of 25 feet (e.g. "Charting the Chesapeake 1590-1990". Maryland State Archives. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc220 ... front.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21. ) or 30 feet deep ("Healthy Chesapeake Waterways" (PDF). University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. http://ian.umces.edu/pdfs/iannewsletter1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21. )
6. ^ "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -2,00.html. Retrieved 2007-03-19
7. ^ Grymes, Charles A. "Spanish in the Chesapeake". http://www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/spanish.html. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
8. ^ Weber, David (1994). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 36, 37.
9. ^ "H.R. 5466 [109th] Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Designation Act". GovTrack.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-5466. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
10. ^ Domes S., Lewis M., Moran R., Nyman D.. “Chesapeake Bay Wetlands”. Emporia State University. May 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
11. ^ "Chesapeake Bay Workboats". Chesapeake Bay Gateway Network. http://www.baygateways.net/workboats.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
12. ^ Dennen, R. (2009-10-30). “Is it time we put the ailing Bay on diet?”. The Free Lance Star. Retrieved 2010-02-17
13. ^ "Bad Water and the Decline of Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake Bay". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2008-12. http://www.cbf.org/Document.Doc?id=172. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
14. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (2008-09-12). "Md. Gets Tough on Chicken Farmers". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... 03841.html.
15. ^ a b c d Oysters: Gem of the Ocean, The Economist, December 8, 2008; accessed September 2, 2009.
16. ^ "Oyster Reefs: Ecological importance". US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://habitat.noaa.gov/restorationtech ... TopicID=11. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
17. ^ "Estimating Net Present Value in the Northern Chesapeake Bay Oyster Fishery". NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office. 2008-11-07. http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/OysterEIS ... _rev_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
18. ^ "Research – Shellfish Diseases". Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 2007-03-16. http://www.vims.edu/env/research/shellfish/. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
19. ^ Urbina, Ian (November 29, 2008). In Maryland, Focus on Poultry Industry Pollution. The New York Times. p. A14. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/us/29 ... ss&emc=rss
20. ^ Program turns pork into oysters, Jesse Yeatman, South Maryland Newspapers Online, August 12, 2009.
21. ^ Oysters Are on the Rebound in the Chesapeake Bay, Henry Fountain, The New York Times, August 3, 2009; accessed September 8, 2009.

[edit] Further reading

* Cleaves, E.T. et al. (2006). Quaternary geologic map of the Chesapeake Bay 4º x 6º quadrangle, United States [Miscellaneous Investigations Series; Map I-1420 (NJ-18)]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
* Phillips, S.W., ed. (2007). Synthesis of U.S. Geological Survey science for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and implications for environmental management [U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1316]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

[edit] Bay area publications
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links or by converting links into footnote references. (July 2010)

* The Capital Newspaper – The news of the Chesapeake's western shore and Annapolis
* Chesapeake Bay Magazine – Lifestyle magazine concerning the Chesapeake Bay region
* PropTalk – Chesapeake Bay powerboating magazine
* SpinSheet – Chesapeake Bay sailing magazine

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Chesapeake Bay

* Bay Backpack – Chesapeake Bay education resources for educators
* Chesapeake Bay Foundation
* Chesapeake Research Consortium
* Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay
* Chesapeake Bay Program
* Chesapeake Bay Journal
* Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network
* Chesapeake Community Modeling Program
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge (near Annapolis, MD)
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel
* Maryland Sea Grant
* National Geographic- Saving The Chesapeake
* National Geographic- Exploring The Chesapeake Then and Now
* National Geographic Magazine Jamestown/Werowocomoco Interactive
* Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Water Trail.
* University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Research and science application activities emphasizing Chesapeake Bay and its watershed.
* Chesapeake Bay Health Report Card
* Always-Updated Event Calendar for the Chesapeake Bay.

[show]
v • d • e
State of Maryland
Annapolis (capital)
Topics

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Regions

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CDPs

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C IS DA MON LANDUNGZ A FACD!
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Headshrinker
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Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Headshrinker » Fri Aug 27, 2010 5:00 pm UTC

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Baltimore Steam Packet Company
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The Old Bay Line's District of Columbia in 1949

The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, also known as the Old Bay Line, was an American steamship line from 1840 to 1962, providing overnite steamboat service on the Chesapeake Bay, primarily between Baltimore, Maryland and Norfolk, Virginia. Called a "packet" for the mail packets carried on government mail contracts, the term in the 19th century came to mean a steamer line operating on a regular, fixed daily schedule between two or more cities. By the time the venerable packet line ceased operation in 1962 after 122 years of existence, it was the last surviving overnight steamship passenger service in the United States.[1][2]

In addition to regularly calling on Baltimore and Norfolk, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company also provided freight, passenger and vehicle transport to Washington, D.C., Old Point Comfort, and Richmond, Virginia, at various times during its history. The Old Bay Line, as it came to be known by the 1860s, was acclaimed for its genteel service and fine dining, serving Chesapeake Bay specialties. Walter Lord, famed author of A Night to Remember and whose grandfather had been the packet line's president from 1893 to 1899, mused that its reputation for excellent service was attributable to "... some magical blending of the best in the North and the South, made possible by the Company's unique role in 'bridging' the two sections ... the North contributed its tradition of mechanical proficiency, making the ships so reliable; while the South contributed its gracious ease".[2]

One of the Old Bay Line's steamers, the former President Warfield, later became famous as the Exodus ship of book and movie fame, when Jewish refugees from war-torn Europe sailed aboard her in 1947 in an unsuccessful attempt to emigrate to Palestine.
Old Bay Line 1950s timetable
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
o 1.1 1840s–1850s
o 1.2 1860s–1910s
+ 1.2.1 World War I and aftermath
o 1.3 1920s–1930s
o 1.4 1940s
+ 1.4.1 World War II
+ 1.4.2 Postwar and the Exodus
o 1.5 1950s and demise
* 2 Routes operated
* 3 Old Bay Line fleet
* 4 See also
* 5 References

[edit] History

Just seven years after Robert Fulton proved the commercial viability of steam-powered ships with his North River Steamboat (more commonly known today as Clermont) in 1807, small wood-burning steamers began to ply the Chesapeake Bay. Prior to the coming of the railroads and river steamboats in the early 19th century, overland travel was an exceedingly slow and tedious undertaking.[2] Rivers were the main means of transportation and most cities were founded on them. This was especially so in North America, where journeys over vast distances of hundreds or even thousands of miles required months of hazardous, uncomfortable travel by stagecoach or wagon on rutted, unpaved trails. In the 1830s, railroads were being built, but the technology was crude and average passenger train speed was only 12 miles per hour (19 km/h).[3] It would be many years before the various lines were knitted together to make intercity rail travel in the U.S. a reality. Not until 1863, for example, was it possible to travel between New York City and Washington, D. C., without changing trains en route.[4]

In this environment, steamships traveling on rivers such as the Ohio and Mississippi or large inland bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay offered a comfortable and relatively fast mode of transportation. The first steamboat to serve Baltimore was the locally built Chesapeake, constructed in 1813 to link Baltimore with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Operated by the Union Line, the boat connected with a stagecoach for the overland portion of the journey.[5] Two years later, the Briscoe-Partridge Line's Eagle was the first steamboat to sail the length of Chesapeake Bay.[3]

A direct ancestor of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company was the Maryland & Virginia Steam Boat Company formed in 1828 to link Baltimore, Richmond, and Norfolk, traversing the Chesapeake Bay and the James River. By 1839, the Maryland & Virginia was heavily in debt from the purchase of two new, large ships the year before: the 210-foot (64 m) long Alabama and the 173-foot (53 m) Jewess. The Alabama was expensive to operate and proved to be impractical for Chesapeake Bay operations, causing the bankruptcy of the Maryland & Virginia later that year.[5]
[edit] 1840s–1850s

When the Maryland & Virginia collapsed in late 1839, the Maryland legislature convened to grant a charter to the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, organized in Baltimore to provide overnight steamship service on the Chesapeake Bay. The company was granted a 20-year charter on March 18, 1840 by the Maryland legislature and then acquired three of the former Maryland & Virginia's steamboats: Pocahontas, Georgia, and Jewess.[5][6][7] The company began overnight paddlewheel steamship passenger and freight service daily except Sundays between Baltimore and Norfolk, under the company's first president, Andrew Fisher Henderson. Also instrumental in the company's founding was Thomas Kelso, who subsequently served as a director of the line. By 1848, the company's steamship Herald was making the trip in less than 12 hours, a time which the line would maintain until the end in 1962.[8] An affiliate, the Powhatan Line, started service between Norfolk and Richmond in 1845, interchanging freight and passengers with the Old Bay Line.[8]

By the 1850s, competition was keen as steamships grew in size and efficiency to serve the fast-growing nation. The Old Bay Line, in particular, served as a link between the antebellum South and northern markets, hauling large quantities of cotton north and manufactured goods south, along with a thriving passenger business between Baltimore and Norfolk. Railroads also began acquiring steamship lines in the 1850s, and the Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad, a predecessor of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P), acquired a controlling interest in the Baltimore Steam Packet Company in 1851.[8] As competitors entered the field, each line vied to outdo its competitors in the luxurious appointments of their ships' staterooms and dining service. The company acquired newer and larger ships in the 1850s, such as the North Carolina in 1852 and the Louisiana in 1854, the latter at 266 feet (81 m) in length being the largest wooden vessel the company would own.[8] A passenger on the Baltimore Steam Packet Company's Georgia, carried away by delight over his travel experience in 1853, was effusive in his description of an overnight trip. Writing in the florid language of the time, he said:

I know of no more delightful trip from Baltimore down the Chesapeake ... upon the broad blue waters with an exquisite breeze, which came up with invigorating freshness from the silver waves. Night came on, and her azure curtain gemmed with myriad stars was drawn over the expanse above.
—W.S. Forrest, Historical Sketches of Norfolk, 1853[9]

The North Carolina similarly impressed a Baltimore Patriot reporter in 1852, who described the ship's dining saloon as "having imported
* the log canoe
* the pungy
* the bugeye
* the Chesapeake Bay deadrise

Today, the body of water is less productive than it used to be, because of runoff from urban areas (mostly on the Western Shore) and farms (especially on the Eastern Shore), over harvesting, and invasion of foreign species. The bay still yields more fish and shellfish (about 45,000 short tons or 40,000 tonnes yearly) than any other estuary in the United States.

The bay is famous for its rockfish, also known as striped bass. Once on the verge of extinction, rockfish have made a significant comeback due to legislative action that put a moratorium on rockfishing, which allowed the species to repopulate. Rockfish are now able to be fished in strictly controlled and limited quantities.

Oyster farming is a growing industry for the bay to help maintain the bay's productivity as well as a natural effort for filtering impurities in the bay in an effort to reduce the disastrous effects of man-made pollution.

In 2005, local governments began debate on the introduction to certain parts of the bay of a species of Asian oyster, to revive the lagging shellfish industry.
[edit] Deteriorating environmental conditions
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay

In the 1970s, the Chesapeake Bay was discovered to contain one of the planet's first identified marine dead zones, where hypoxic waters were so depleted of oxygen they were unable to support life, resulting in massive fish kills. Today the bay's dead zones are estimated to kill 75,000 tons of bottom-dwelling clams and worms each year, weakening the base of the estuary's food chain and robbing the blue crab in particular of a primary food source. Crabs themselves are sometimes observed to amass on shore to escape pockets of oxygen-poor water, a behavior known as a "crab jubilee". Hypoxia results in part from large algal blooms, which are nourished by the runoff of farm and industrial waste throughout the watershed. The runoff and pollution have many components that help contribute to the algal blooms which is mainly fed by phosphorus and nitrogen.[12] This algae prevents sunlight from reaching the bottom of the bay while alive and deoxygenates the bay's water when it dies and rots. The erosion and runoff of sediment into the bay, exacerbated by devegetation, construction and the prevalence of pavement in urban and suburban areas, also blocks vital sunlight. The resulting loss of aquatic vegetation has depleted the habitat for much of the bay's animal life. Beds of eelgrass, the dominant variety in the southern bay, have shrunk by more than half there since the early 1970s. Overharvesting, pollution, sedimentation and disease has turned much of the bay's bottom into a muddy wasteland.[13]

One particularly harmful source of toxicity is Pfiesteria piscicida, which can affect both fish and humans. Pfiesteria caused a small regional panic in the late 1990s when a series of large blooms started killing large numbers of fish while giving swimmers mysterious rashes, and nutrient runoff from chicken farms was blamed for the growth.[14]
[edit] Depletion of oysters

While the bay's salinity is ideal for oysters, and the oyster fishery was at one time the bay's most commercially viable,[15] the population has in the last fifty years been devastated. Maryland once had roughly 200,000 acres of oyster reefs. Today it has about 36,000.[15] It has been estimated that in pre-colonial times, oysters could filter the entirety of the Bay in about 3.3 days; by 1988 this time had increased to 325 days.[16] The harvest's gross value decreased 88% from 1982 to 2007.[17]

The primary problem is overharvesting. Lax government regulations allow anyone with a license to remove oysters from state-owned beds, and although limits are set, they are not strongly enforced.[15] The overharvesting of oysters has made it difficult for them to reproduce, which requires close proximity to one another. A second cause for the oyster depletion is that the drastic increase in human population caused a sharp increase in pollution flowing into the bay.[15]

The bay's oyster industry has also suffered from two diseases: MSX and Dermo.[18]
[edit] Oyster recovery attempts

The depletion of oysters due to overharvesting and damaged habitat has had a particularly harmful effect on the quality of the bay. Oysters serve as natural water filters, and their decline has further reduced the water quality of the bay. Water that was once clear for meters is now so turbid that a wader may lose sight of their feet before their knees are wet.

Efforts of federal, state and local governments, working in partnership through the Chesapeake Bay Program, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and other nonprofit environmental groups, to restore or at least maintain the current water quality have had mixed results. One particular obstacle to cleaning up the bay is that much of the polluting substances arise far upstream in tributaries lying within states far removed from the bay itself. Despite the state of Maryland spending over $100 million to restore the bay, conditions have continued to grow worse. Twenty years ago, the bay supported over six thousand oystermen. There are now fewer than 500.[19]

Efforts to repopulate the bay with via hatcheries have been carried out by a group called the Oyster Recovery Partnership, with some success. They recently placed 6 million oysters on eight acres of the Trent Hall sanctuary.[20] Scientists from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science at the College of William & Mary claim that experimental reefs created in 2004 now house 180 million native oysters, Crassostrea virginica, which is far less than the billions that once existed.[21]
[edit] Tourism

The Chesapeake Bay is a main feature for tourists who visit Maryland and Virginia each year. Fishing, crabbing, swimming, boating, and sailing are extremely popular activities enjoyed on the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. As a result, tourism has a notable impact on Maryland's economy.
[edit] See also

* Chesepian
* Delmarva Peninsula
* Dead zone (ecology)
* Chesapeake, a novel by author James A. Michener
* Chessie (sea monster)
* National Estuarine Research Reserve System
* List of islands in Maryland (with the islands in the bay)
* Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation
* Chesapeake Climate Action Network
* Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System

[edit] References

1. ^ a b "Fact Sheet 102-98 - The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". U. S. Geological Survey. 1998-11-18. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs102-98/. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
2. ^ Also shown as "Chisupioc" (by John Smith) and "Chisapeack", in Algonquian "Che" means "big" or "great", "sepi" means river, and the "oc" or "ok" ending indicated something (a village, in this case) "at" that feature. "Sepi" is also found in another placename of Algonquian origin, Mississippi. The name was soon transferred by the English from the big river at that site to the big bay. Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 23.
3. ^ Farenthold, David A. (2006-12-12). "A Dead Indian Language Is Brought Back to Life". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... components. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
4. ^ "FAQ". Scientists Cliffs community. http://www.scientistscliffs.org/HTML/FAQs/FAQs.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
5. ^ "Geography". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. http://www.cbf.org/site/PageServer?page ... _geography. Retrieved 2008-04-21. Other sources give values of 25 feet (e.g. "Charting the Chesapeake 1590-1990". Maryland State Archives. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/speccol/sc220 ... front.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21. ) or 30 feet deep ("Healthy Chesapeake Waterways" (PDF). University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. http://ian.umces.edu/pdfs/iannewsletter1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21. )
6. ^ "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -2,00.html. Retrieved 2007-03-19
7. ^ Grymes, Charles A. "Spanish in the Chesapeake". http://www.virginiaplaces.org/settleland/spanish.html. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
8. ^ Weber, David (1994). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 36, 37.
9. ^ "H.R. 5466 [109th] Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Designation Act". GovTrack.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-5466. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
10. ^ Domes S., Lewis M., Moran R., Nyman D.. “Chesapeake Bay Wetlands”. Emporia State University. May 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
11. ^ "Chesapeake Bay Workboats". Chesapeake Bay Gateway Network. http://www.baygateways.net/workboats.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
12. ^ Dennen, R. (2009-10-30). “Is it time we put the ailing Bay on diet?”. The Free Lance Star. Retrieved 2010-02-17
13. ^ "Bad Water and the Decline of Blue Crabs in the Chesapeake Bay". Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2008-12. http://www.cbf.org/Document.Doc?id=172. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
14. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (2008-09-12). "Md. Gets Tough on Chicken Farmers". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co ... 03841.html.
15. ^ a b c d Oysters: Gem of the Ocean, The Economist, December 8, 2008; accessed September 2, 2009.
16. ^ "Oyster Reefs: Ecological importance". US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://habitat.noaa.gov/restorationtech ... TopicID=11. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
17. ^ "Estimating Net Present Value in the Northern Chesapeake Bay Oyster Fishery". NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office. 2008-11-07. http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/OysterEIS ... _rev_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
18. ^ "Research – Shellfish Diseases". Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 2007-03-16. http://www.vims.edu/env/research/shellfish/. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
19. ^ Urbina, Ian (November 29, 2008). In Maryland, Focus on Poultry Industry Pollution. The New York Times. p. A14. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/us/29 ... ss&emc=rss
20. ^ Program turns pork into oysters, Jesse Yeatman, South Maryland Newspapers Online, August 12, 2009.
21. ^ Oysters Are on the Rebound in the Chesapeake Bay, Henry Fountain, The New York Times, August 3, 2009; accessed September 8, 2009.

[edit] Further reading

* Cleaves, E.T. et al. (2006). Quaternary geologic map of the Chesapeake Bay 4º x 6º quadrangle, United States [Miscellaneous Investigations Series; Map I-1420 (NJ-18)]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
* Phillips, S.W., ed. (2007). Synthesis of U.S. Geological Survey science for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and implications for environmental management [U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1316]. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

[edit] Bay area publications
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive and inappropriate external links or by converting links into footnote references. (July 2010)

* The Capital Newspaper – The news of the Chesapeake's western shore and Annapolis
* Chesapeake Bay Magazine – Lifestyle magazine concerning the Chesapeake Bay region
* PropTalk – Chesapeake Bay powerboating magazine
* SpinSheet – Chesapeake Bay sailing magazine

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Chesapeake Bay

* Bay Backpack – Chesapeake Bay education resources for educators
* Chesapeake Bay Foundation
* Chesapeake Research Consortium
* Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay
* Chesapeake Bay Program
* Chesapeake Bay Journal
* Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network
* Chesapeake Community Modeling Program
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge (near Annapolis, MD)
* Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel
* Maryland Sea Grant
* National Geographic- Saving The Chesapeake
* National Geographic- Exploring The Chesapeake Then and Now
* National Geographic Magazine Jamestown/Werowocomoco Interactive
* Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Water Trail.
* University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Research and science application activities emphasizing Chesapeake Bay and its watershed.
* Chesapeake Bay Health Report Card
* Always-Updated Event Calendar for the Chesapeake Bay.

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[show]
v • d • e
Waters of Maryland
Bays/Estuaries
Assawoman • Chesapeake • Chincoteague • Eastern • Fishing • Herring • Isle of Wight • Newport • Sinepuxent
Rivers
Anacostia • Annemessex (Big) • Annemessex (Little) • Back • Bird • Blackwater • Blackwater (Little) • Bohemia • Bush • Casselman • Chester • Chicamacomico • Choptank • Choptank (Little) • Christina River • Corsica • Elk • Front • Gunpowder • Hawlings • Jones Falls • Magothy • Magothy (Little) • Manokin • Middle • Miles • Monocacy • Monocacy (Little) • Nanticoke • North East • Patapsco • Patuxent • Pocomoke • Port Tobacco • Potomac • Rhode • St. Martin • St. Marys • Sassafras • Savage • Severn • South • Susquehanna • Transquaking • Tred Avon • Warwick • West • Wicomico (Potomac) • Wicomico • Wye • Wye East • Youghiogheny
Creeks/Runs/Streams
Antietam • Ballenger • Bear (Patapsco) • Bear (Sideling Hill) • Bear (Youghiogheny) • Bennett • Big Pipe • Bodkin • Bread and Cheese • Broad (Choptank) • Broad (Potomac) • Broad (Susquehanna) • Broad Run • Budds • Cabin John • Carroll • Catoctin • Catoctin (Little) •
C IS DA MON LANDUNGZ A FACD!
U C 2 ! U C 2! HAHAHA! U C 2! LMAO

Headshrinker
Posts: 120
Joined: Fri Apr 30, 2010 5:18 pm UTC
Location: My location has been known to fluctuate

Re: Offend a moderator

Postby Headshrinker » Fri Aug 27, 2010 5:02 pm UTC

CAN SOME1 LIC TELL ME OW 2 USE HYPER INKS PLZ


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