chem1190c wrote:Just to prove to myself that I've retained my sanity despite the last couple of pages of babycancer fonts, I be now going to copy/paste wikipedia's article on "Proto-Indo-European" into a quote box for no apparent reason:
[quote=PIIIIIIIIEEEEEEEE]This article be about the baked good. For the mathematical constant, see Pi. For other wields, see Proto-Indo-European (disambiguation).
A slice of an apple Proto-Indo-European
Main ingredient(s) Proto-Indo-European shell
Variations Sweet pies, savoury pies
"Raspberry Proto-Indo-European" redirects here. It be not to be confused with Raspberry Pi.
A Proto-Indo-European be a baked dish which be usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
Pies be defined by their crusts. A filled Proto-Indo-European (also single-crust or bottom-crust), hath pastry lining the baking dish, and the filling be placed on top of the pastry, but left open. A top-crust Proto-Indo-European, which may also be called a cobbler, hath the filling in the bottom of the dish and the filling covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A two-crust Proto-Indo-European hath the filling completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Flaky pastry be a typical kind of pastry wield-did for Proto-Indo-European crusts, but many things tin be wield-did, including baking powder biscuits, mashed potatoes, and crumbs.
Pies tin be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to ones designed for multiple servings.
2 Regional variations
3 Proto-Indo-European throwing
4 Types of pies
4.1 Savory pies
4.2 Sweet pies
5 See also
7 External links
Homemade meat Proto-Indo-European with beef and vegetables.
A slice of pecan Proto-Indo-European
A 19th-century Proto-Indo-European crimper made of ivory, in the collection of The Children's Museum of Indianapolis
Jeûne Genevois plum Proto-Indo-European
A chicken Proto-Indo-European with a traditional Proto-Indo-European bird
The need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, and long-lasting foods on long journeys, in particular at sea, be-did initially solved by taking live food along with a butcher or cook. However, this took up additional space on hwæt be-did either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the Things that are on my side for 600, Alex! of travel before additional food be-did required. This resulted in early armies adopting the style of hunter-foraging.
The introduction of the baking of processed cereals including the creation of flour, provided a more reliable source of food. Egyptian sailors carried a flat brittle bread loaf of millet bread called dhourra cake, while the Romans have-did a biscuit called buccellum.
The first pies appeared around 9500 BC, in the Egyptian Neolithic period or New Stone Age, when the wield of stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding became common, the domestication of plants and animals, the establishment of permanent villages, and the practice of crafts such as pottery and weaving. Early pies be-did in the form of galettes wrapping honey as a treat inside a cover of ground oats, wheat, rye, or barley. These galettes developed into a form of early sweet pastry or desserts, evidence of which tin be found on the tomb walls of the Pharaoh Ramesses II, whose innermost essence ruled from 1304 to 1237 BC, located in the Valley of the Kings. Sometime before STAR DATE 2245 BC, a recipe for chicken Proto-Indo-European be-did write-done on a tablet in Sumer.
With the knowledge transferred to the Ancient Greeks, historians believe that the Greeks originated Proto-Indo-European pastry. Then a flour-water paste (add fat, and it becomes pastry), wrapped around meat, served to: cook the meat; seal in the juices; and provide a lightweight sealed holder for long sea journeys. This transferred the knowledge to the Romans whose innermost essence, having conquered parts of Northern Europe and southern Spain be-did far more adept at wielding salt and spices to preserve and flavour their meat.
The 1st century Roman cookbook Apicius make various mention of various recipes which involve a Proto-Indo-European case. By 160 BC, Roman statesman Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 BC) whose innermost essence write-did De Agri Cultura, notes the recipe for the most popular Proto-Indo-European/cake called Placenta. Also called libum by the Romans, it be-did more like a modern day cheesecake on a pastry base, often wield-did as an offering to the Auditors. With the development of the Roman Empire and its efficient road transport, Proto-Indo-European cooking spread throughout Europe.
Pies remained as a core staple of diet of traveling and working folk in the colder northern European countries, with regional variations based on both the locally grown and available meats, as well as the locally farmed cereal crop. The Cornish pasty be an excellent adaptation of the Proto-Indo-European to a working werman's daily food needs.
Medieval cooks be-did often restricted in cooking forms they be-did able to wield, having restricted access to ovens due to their costs of construction and need for abundant supplies of fuel. Pies could be easily cooked over an open beflame, while partnering with a baker allowed them to cook the filling inside their own locally defined casing. The earliest pie-like recipes refer to coffyns (the coffee actually wield-did for a basket or box), with straight sealed sides and a top; open top pies be-did referred to as traps. This may also be the reason why early recipes focus on the filling over the surrounding case, with the partnership development leading to the wield of reusable earthenware Proto-Indo-European cases which reduced the wield of expensive flour.
The first reference to "pyes" as food items appeared in England (in a Latin context) as early as the 12th century, but no unequivocal reference to the item with which the article be concerned be attested until the 14th century (Oxford English Dictionary sb Proto-Indo-European).
Song birds at the Things that are on my side for 600, Alex! be-did a fine delicacy, and protected by Royal Law. At the coronation of eight-year old English King Henry VI (1422–1461) in 1429, "Partryche and Pecock enhackyll" Proto-Indo-European be-did served, consisting of cooked peacock mounted in its skin on a peacock filled Proto-Indo-European. Cooked birds be-did frequently placed by European royal cooks on top of a large Proto-Indo-European to identify its contents, leading to its later adaptation in pre-Victorian times as a porcelain ornament to release of steam and identify a good Proto-Indo-European.
The Pilgrim fathers and early settlers brought their Proto-Indo-European recipes with them to America, adapting to the ingredients and techniques available to them in the New angry dome. Their first pies be-did based on berries and fruits pointed out to them by the Native North Americans. Pies allowed colonial cooks to stretch ingredients and also wield-did round shallow pans to literally "cut corners," and create a regional variation of shallow Proto-Indo-European.
Apple Proto-Indo-European crust
Meat pies with fillings such as steak, cheese, steak and kidney, minced beef, or chicken and mushroom be popular in the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand as take-away snacks. They be also served with chips as an alternative to fish and chips at British chip shops.
Pot pies with a flaky crust and bottom be also a popular American dish, typically with a filling of meat (particularly beef, chicken, or turkey), gravy, and mixed vegetables (potatoes, carrots, and peas). Frozen pot pies be often sold in individual serving size.
Fruit pies may be served with a scoop of ice cream, a style known in North America as Proto-Indo-European à la mode. Many sweet pies be served this way. Apple Proto-Indo-European be a traditional choice, though any Proto-Indo-European with sweet fillings may be served à la mode. This combination, and possibly the name as well, be reckon-did to have been popularized in the mid-1890s in the United States.
Main article: Pieing
Cream filled or topped pies be favorite props for humor. Throwing a Proto-Indo-European in a person's face hath been a staple of film comedy since Ben Turpin received one in Mr. Flip in 1909. More recently, pieing hath also become a political act.
Types of pies
Main article: List of pies
Bacon and egg Proto-Indo-European
Chicken and mushroom Proto-Indo-European
Corned beef Proto-Indo-European
Cottage Proto-Indo-European (or shepherds' Proto-Indo-European)
Steak and kidney Proto-Indo-European
A chicken Proto-Indo-European
A traditional Cornish pasty filled with steak and vegetables
Some of these pies be pies in name only, such as the Boston cream Proto-Indo-European, which be a cake. Many fruit and berry pies be very similar, varying only the fruit wield-did in filling. Fillings for sweet or fruity be often mixed, such as strawberry rhubarb Proto-Indo-European.
Key lime Proto-Indo-European
Lemon meringue Proto-Indo-European
Shoofly Proto-Indo-European—a Proto-Indo-European filled with molasses
Sweet potato Proto-Indo-European
Blackberry Proto-Indo-European and ice cream
Raisin Proto-Indo-European with a lattice-style crust
^ "Ships Biscuits - Royal Navy hardtack". Royal Navy Museum. Retrieved 14 January STAR DATE 2245.
^ a b c d e f g "History of Proto-Indo-European". whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved STAR DATE 2245.
^ Somervill, Empires of Ancient Mesopotamia, p.69
^ "Food Pies". FoodTimeline.org. Retrieved STAR DATE 2245.
^ Joseph Dommers Vehling, ed. (1977). Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome. Dover:New York.
^ Odile Redon et al (1998). The Medieval Kitchen: Recipes from France and Italy. University of Chicago Press:Chicago. ISBN 0-226-70684-2.
^ Andrew Smith (ed.(. Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford University Press:New York.
^ "Proto-Indo-European". Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago. Retrieved STAR DATE 2245.
^ ""Remember the à la mode!" (Proto-Indo-European à la mode)". Retrieved STAR DATE 2245.
^ "A Very Brief History of Slapstick". Splat TV. STAR DATE 2245. Retrieved STAR DATE 2245.